Wednesday, 16 July 2008

3B Mind Control Pioneers

3B Mind Control Pioneers

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A Brief Summary of the History of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation;
by Alvaro Pascual-Leone and Timothy Wagner; Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Boston, USA

In 43 AD, Scribonious Largus, a court physician to the Roman emperor Claudius, recorded in his book ‘Compositiones Medicamentorum’, a most detailed collection of
drug compounds or recipes in use by physicians at that time. Among these he mentions the use of electrical currents to treat headaches and gout by applying electric torpedo fish to the affected regions or by placing painful extremities into a pool of water containing torpedo fish. The resulting electrical shocks presumably stunned the peripheral skin receptors, or affected spinal or brain structures inducing an immediate and residual numbness in the extremity and an associated transient period of pain relief. In this application electrical torpedo fish were a very early means oftranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for therapeutic purposes. This form of treatment reportedly became particularly popular for the treatment of gouty arthritis. In the late 18th century, Luigi Galvani began laying the foundations for modern electrophysiology and bioelectric theory with his famous “animal electricity” experiments and the invention of the voltaic cell. While many people consider Galvani the father of modernelectrophysiology , French physician Charles Le Roy actually began experimenting with the use of electricity to influence physiological function in 1755.

From Skews Me, Brain Implants;

In id="e6om">id="veq.">1870,two German researchers named [Eduard] Hitzig and [Gustav] Fritsch electrically stimulated the brains of dogs, demonstrating that certain portions of the brain were the centers of motor function. The American Dr. RobertBartholow, within four years, demonstrated that the same was true of human beings. By the turn of the [twentieth] century in Germany Fedor Krause was able to do a systematic electrical mapping of the human brain, using conscious patients undergoing brain surgery [Morgan, James P., “The First Reported Case of Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Journal of History of Medicine at; Zimmerman, M., “Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Human Neurobiology, 1982].

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id="kufe" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Lapicque’s 1907 paper: from frogs to integrate-and-fire,
by N Brunel M.C.W. van Rossum, Biological Cybernetics 4 Oct. 2007, DOI 10.1007/s00422-007-0190-0
Abstract: Exactly 100 years ago, Louis Lapicque published a paper on the excitability of nerves that is often cited in the context of integrate-and-fire

id="cif-">class="postbody" id="d3e1">Wediscuss Lapicque’s contributions along with a translation of the original publication.

id="mcm0" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="font-size:85%;">id="zmr7">1930:

Another early researcher into electrical stimulation of the brain was Walter Rudolf Hess, who began research into ESB in the 1930s, jolting patients’ brains with shocks administered through tiny needles that pierced the skull. His experiments [also] included the insertion of fine electrically conductive wires into the brains ofanaesthetized cats. To noone’s great surprise, given mild electrical stimulation the cats went beserk [Vance Packard, The People Shapers (New York: Bantam Books, 1977); “Hess, Walter Rudolf,” Encyclopedia Americana (New York: Harper & Row, 1969); “Hess, Walter Rudolph,” Funk &Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (New York: Funk & Wagnalls Inc., 1973)].

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id="fo3c" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Electrical excitation of the nervous system—introducing a new principle: remote control.,
by Light RU, Chaffee EL., Science 30 mar. 1934;79: pp. 299–300.
DOI: 10.1126/science.79.2048.299


During the decades of the 1940s and 1950s, Wilder Penfield…experimented with electrical brain stimulation on patients undergoing surgery. One of Penfield’s discoveries was that the application of electricity on alert patients could stimulate the memory of past events [Project Open Mind] (full pic, video).

Severed Head Lives "Shocking"

In the early 1940s, Soviet scientists experimented severed heads and bringing life back to dead bodies of animals.

Russian Experiment: Decapitated dog head kept alive

Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (1940) Part 1

Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (1940) Part 2

Dogs Head Revived

This film is shown through the courtesy of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship and is distributed through the American-Soviet Medical Society in New York.

SOVIET FILM AGENCY presents EXPERIMENTS IN THE REVIVAL OF ORGANISMS; Research in the Revival of Animal Organisms by means of an Artificial Blood Circulation System carried out at the institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy. USSR. Scenario and Scientific Supervision Doctor of Medical Science S.S.Bryukhonenko; Direction D.I. Yashin; Photography E.V. Kashina; Animation T.D. Tikhomirova;Production TECHFILM STUDIO, MOSCOW, 1940; Introduced by Professor J.B.S. Haldane, F.R.S.


A Russian USSR experiment, showing a decapitated dog's head being kept alive by pumping oxygenated blood to the head. Dog clearly reacts to external stimuli. Experiment in the revival of organs. Project show that with adequate external technology: lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, stomachet al can be replaced.


id="b-:t" href=""
id="h_ne" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Atechnique for chronic remote nerve stimulation.,
by Lafferty JM, Farrell JJ., Science 5 aug. 1949;110: pp. 140–141
DOI: 10.1126/science.110.2849.140.

id="w1yt" style="font-size:85%;">1950:

Robert G. Heath and Dr. Russell Moore,

funded largely by the U.S. military and the CIA, experiment with mind manipulation by inserting up to 125 electrodes into subjects’ brains (alongside drugs such as LSD).

Heath also suggests that lobotomies be performed on patients, not for therapeutic reasons, but for the convenience of the hospital staff.

Robert Galbraith Heath; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dr. Robert Galbraith Heath (1915 - 24 September 1999) was an American psychiatrist. He followed the theory of biological psychiatry that organic defects were the sole source of mental illness, and that consequently mental problems were treatable by physical means. Heath founded the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at Tulane University, New Orleans, in 1949 and remained its Chairman until 1980 He performed many experiments there involving electrical stimulation of the brain via surgically implanted electrodes. This work was partially financed by the CIA and the US military. One of his collaborators was the Australian psychiatrist Harry Bailey, who later reminisced that they had used African Americans as subjects "because they were everywhere and cheap experimental animals". Heath also experimented with the drugbulbocapnine to induce stupor, using prisoners in the Louisiana State Penitentiary as experimental subjects. He later worked on schizophrenia, which he regarded as an illness with a physical basis.


  • Heath, R.G. (1961) Reappraisal of biological aspects of psychiatry. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 3: 1-11.

  • In Memoriam: Robert Galbraith Heath, MD, DMSci (1915–1999). Neurology 54(2): 286.

  • Heath, R.G. (1963) Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry 120: 571-577.

  • Moan, C.E., & Heath, R.G. (1972) Septal stimulation for the initiation of heterosexual activity in a homosexual male. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 3: 23-30.

  • Robert Heath at Wireheading

  • Slattery, J.P. (1990) Report of the Royal Commission into Deep Sleep Therapy. New South Wales Parliamentary Paper 304/1990-1991 ISBN 0724087664

  • Scheflin, A.W. & Opton, E.M. (1978) The Mind Manipulators: a non-fiction account. (Paddington Press: New York) ISBN 0448229773 pp. 314-315.

  • Heath, R.G. (1967) Schizophrenia: pathogenetic theories. International Journal of Psychiatry 3(5): 407-10.


style="font-family: tahoma;">John Lilly, of the National Institute of Mental Health, discovers that he can simulate a variety of emotions by placing electrodes inside a monkey’s brain. (A male monkey, for example, when given a switch to prompt orgasm, pushes the button approximately every three minutes.) Lilly's work draws theCIA’s attention and is later described in John Marks's The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control (1979) and George Andrews's MKULTRA: The CIA's Top Secret Program in Human Experimentation and Behavior Modification (2001). [The Atlantic]

John C. Lilly; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, psychoanalyst and writer. He was a pioneer researcher into the nature of consciousness using as his principal tools the isolation tank, dolphin communication and psychedelic drugs, sometimes in combination. Lilly was a qualified physician and psychoanalyst. He made contributions in the fields of biophysics, neurophysiology, electronics, computer science, andneuroanatomy. He invented and promoted the use of the isolation tank as a means of sensory deprivation. He was also a pioneer in attempting interspecies communication between humans and dolphins. After the war he trained in psychoanalysis and at the University of Pennsylvania where he began researching the physical structures of the brain and of its consciousness. In 1951 he published a paper showing how he could display patterns of brain electrical activity on a cathode ray display screen using electrodes he specially devised for insertion into a living brain. In 1953, he took a post studying neurophysiology with the US Public Health Service Commissioned Officers Corps. In 1954, following the desire to strip away outside stimuli from the mind/brain, he devised the first isolation tank, a dark soundproof tank of warm salt water in which subjects could float for long periods in sensory isolation. Dr. Lilly himself and a research colleague were the first to act as subjects in this research. His quest next took him to ask questions about the minds of other large-brained mammals and in the late 1950s he established a centre devoted to fostering human-dolphin
communication; the Communication Research Institute on St. Thomas in
the Virgin Islands. In the early id="cdpr">1960s,
Dr. Lilly and co-workers published several papers reporting that
dolphins could mimic human speech patterns. Subsequent investigations
of dolphin cognition have generally, however, found it difficult to
replicate his results.

Exploration of human consciousness: In the early sixties he
was introduced to psychedelics like LSD and ketamine and began a series
of experiments in which he took the psychedelic in an isolation tank
and/or in the company of dolphins. These events are described in his

  • Programming
    and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer: Theory and Experiments

  • The
    Centre of the Cyclone, both published in

In the 1980s he led a project
which attempted to teach dolphins a computer-synthesised

style="margin-left: 40px; font-family: tahoma;">Dr. Lilly laid out
the design for a future "communications laboratory" that would be a
floating living room where humans and dolphins could chat as equals and
where they would find a common language. He envisioned a time when all
killing of whales and dolphins would cease, "not from a law being
passed, but from each human understanding innately that these are
ancient, sentient earth residents, with tremendous intelligence and
enormous life force. Not someone to kill, but someone to learn from."
In the 1990s Lilly moved to the island of Maui in Hawaii, where he
lived most of the remainder of his life. His was
designed during this time by the New York based graphic artist, BigTwin
. His literary rights and scientific discoveries were housed within
Human Software, Inc., while his philanthropic endeavors were channelled
through the Human Dolphin Foundation. His legacy continues through the
John C. Lilly Research Institute, Inc.
Solid State Intelligence;
Solid State Intelligence is a malevolent entity described by John C.

Cultural references: Lilly's work,
particularly his development of the sensory deprivation tank, is
referenced explicitly or implicitly in numerous film, music and
television productions. Lilly's work inspired two films made without
his direct involvement,

      id="s9w6">The Day of the Dolphin, in id="ka4t">1973,
      in which the US Navy turns the animals into weapons,

    • id="cq.:" style="margin-left: 40px;">

      States, in 1980, in which scientists combining drugs and isolation
      tanks see reality dangerously


id="z:xu1">style="font-size:78%;">Event-related potential / Evoked potential;
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
event-related potential (ERP) is any stereotyped electrophysiological
response to an
id="tbad0">internal or external stimulus. More simply, it is any
measured brain response that is directly the result of a thought or
perception...ERPs can be reliably measured using electroencephalography
), a
procedure that measures electrical activity of
id="h0e10">the brain through the skull and scalp. As the EEG
reflects thousands of simultaneously ongoing brain processes, the brain
response to a certain stimulus or event of interest is usually not
visible in the EEG. One of the most robust features of theERP response
is a response to unpredictable stimuli. This response-known as the P300
(or simply "P3")-manifests as a positive deflection in voltage
approximately 300 milliseconds after the stimulus is presented... While
evoked potentials reflect the processing of the physical stimulus,
event-related potentials are caused by the "higher" processes, that
might involve memory, expectation, attention, or changes in the
among others.... Though some ERP components are referred to with
acronyms (e.g., left anterior negativity - LAN), most components are
referred to by a preceding letter indicating polarity followed by the
typical latency in milliseconds. Thus, the N400ERP component is
described as a negative voltage deflection occurring approximately
400ms after stimulus onset, whereas the P600 component describes a
positive voltage deflection 600ms after stimulus onset. The stated
latencies forERP components are style="font-family:Tahoma;">often quite variable; for example, the
N400 component may exhibit a latency between 300ms - 500ms....
Experimental psychologists and
id="wqq41" style="font-family:Tahoma;"> neuroscientists have
discovered many different stimuli, which elicit reliable EEG ERPs from
participants. The timing of these responses is thought to provide a
measure of the timing of the brain's communication or time of
information processing. For example, in the checkerboard paradigm
described above, in healthy participants the first response of the
visual cortex is around 50-70msec. This would seem to indicate that
this is the amount of time it takes for the transduced visual stimulus
to reach the cortex after light first enters
style="font-family:Tahoma;"> the eye. Alternatively, the P300
response occurs at around 300ms regardless of the stimulus presented:
visual, tactile, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, etc. Because of this
general invariance in regard to stimulus type, thisERP is understood to
reflect a higher cognitive response to unexpected and/or cognitively
salient stimuli. Due to the consistency of the P300 response to novel
stimuli, a brain-computer interface can be constructed which relies on
it. By arranging many signals in a grid, randomly flashing the rows of
the grid as in the previous paradigm, and observing the P300 responses
of a subject staring at the grid, the subject may
style="font-family:Tahoma;"> which stimulus he is looking at, and
thus slowly "type" words.... Sensory evoked potentials (SEP) are
recorded from the central nervous system following stimulation of sense
organs (for example, visual evoked potentials elicited by a flashing
light or changing pattern on a monitor; auditory evoked potentials by a
click or tone stimulus presented through earphones) or by tactile
orsomatosensory evoked potential (SSEP ) elicited by tactile or
electrical stimulation of a sensory or mixed nerve in the periphery.
They have been widely used in clinical diagnostic
since the 1970s, and also in intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring
(IONM), also known as surgical neurophysiology. There are three kinds
of evoked potentials in widespread clinical use since the 1970s:
auditory evoked potentials, usually recorded from the scalp but
originating atbrainstem level (ABR, BAER, BSER, BAEP, BSEP); visual
evoked potentials, and somatosensory evoked potentials, which are
elicited by electrical st imulation of peripheral

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id="ouv_" style="font-family:tahoma;">id="nvws">Psychosurgery of older people, by
J.L. Poole, Journal of Geriatr Assoc 2 (id="ksf2">1954),
pp. 456–465.


id="emdd">Positive reinfrocement produced by
electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat

by Olds J, Milner PM., J Comp Physiol
Psychol id="uycs">1954;47: pp. 419–27.

style="font-family:tahoma;">Apparatus for chronic
stimulation of the brain of the rat by radiofrequency

style="font-family:tahoma;">by Greer MA, Riggle GC.,
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol id="l7:d">id="stbk">1957;9: pp.
style=";font-family:tahoma;font-size:85%;" >


id="fu-:" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="a6n_" style="font-size:85%;">Remote brain
stimulation and relationships between parameters of stimulation and
by JA. Gengerelli, In: Sheer DE, editor.
Electrical stimulation of the brain. University of Texas Press: Austin;
1961. pp. 155–64.

class="postbody" id="dxzi">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">href=""
id="b2:-" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
0);font-size:85%;" > (no.:112)
Biologicheskaya Radiosvyas (Biological Radio),
Bernard Bernardovich Kazhinsky, Ukranian Academy of Sciences, Kivz,
1962 [in Russian]


Corporate Author : FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OHIO, Personal Author(s) : Kazhinskiy,B.B.,
Report Date : 31 FEB 1963, Accession Number : AD0415676, Pagination or Media Count : 171
id="zzi4">Abstract: Contents: A CLEAR CASE OF BIOLOGICAL
RADIO COMMUNICATION: Searching for Analogies; The Nervous System and
Radio Engineering; The First Sallies Into the Open; Laboratory
Dog Mars Puts the Skeptics to Shame; I Play the Part of a Test Subject;
The Faraday Cage; The Two-Number Riddle; Decisive Experiments of Soviet
Scientists; Radio Communication Among insects. RAYS OF VISION:
Electricity Everywhere; The Yogis Have Known It for a Long Time; A Word
ACOUSTICAL FREQUENCY: Two-Way Communication circuits in the Nerves;
Pain at a Distance. HOW MATTER (BRAIN) THINKS: Memory, A Kind of
Hysteresis; Neurons and a Telegraph Cable; Reflex Arches; Memory
Storage. K. E.TSIOLKOVSKIY ON TELEPATHY: Professor Ivantsov's Doubts;
My Rebuttal; But I Am Not Alone; A. V. Leontovich's Work Supports the
Theory of Biological Radio Communication; Our Ranks Are Steadily
Growing. THE FRIENDS AND ENEMIES ABROAD: Interesting Observations in
Canada; Thousands of Kilometers Away; Some Results and Prospects.

id="opvj">id="cgq6">Descriptors : *BIONICS, COMMUNICATION AND RADIO

style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="pgmn">BRAIN TELESTIMULATOR WITH SOLAR CELL POWER

id="igd0" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">by ROBINSON
BW, WARNER H, ROSVOLD HE.; Science. 1965 May

id="qof0" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">A
telestimulator has been constructed which is suitable for mounting on
the heads of medium-sized Macaca mulatta or larger primates. It differs
from previous units in that the battery supply is continuously
recharged from ambient light by means of solar cells. The system
features remote control of all stimulus parameters, constant current
output, and remote selection of any of 11 electrodes. If additional
transmitters are employed, simultaneous and independent stimulation of
a number of primates in the same group is possible. A shielded room
with a terminated antenna system is used to produce a homogeneous
radio-frequency field for laboratory use.

id="gdjc">PMID: 14289618 [PubMed - indexed for

style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

id="yh9o0">"Electrocardiograms by Telephone,"
by Crouch et al., Feb. 1966. .
id="yh9o1"> "Long Distance FM Telephone Transmission of Fetal
Hagan et al., April

style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">
Manuel Rodriguez Delgado;
From Wikipedia, the free

id="wgn5" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Dr. José
Manuel Rodriguez Delgado (1915) was a Spanish professor of physiology
at Yale University, famed for his research into electrical stimulation
of regions of the brain. Delgado was born in Ronda, Spain in 1915. In
1946 he began a fellowship at Yale, and was invited by the noted
physiologist John Fulton to join the department of physiology in 1950.
Delgado's research interests centered on the use of electrical signals
to evoke responses in the brain. His earliest work was with cats, but
later did experiments with monkeys and humans. Much of Delgado's work
was with an invention he called astimoceiver , a radio which joined a
stimulator of brain waves with a receiver which monitored E.E.G. waves
and sent them back on separate radio channels. This allowed the subject
of the experiment full freedom of movement while allowing the
experimenter to control the experiment. Thestimoceiver could be used to
stimulate emotions and control behavior. According to Delgado, "Radio
Stimulation of different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the
four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant
sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings,
super relaxation, colored visions, and other responses." Delgado stated
that "brain transmitters can remain in a person's head for life. The
energy to activate the brain transmitter is transmitted by way of radio
frequencies." (Source: Cannon; Delgado, J.M.R., "Intracerebral Radio
Stimulation and recording in Completely Free Patients," in Schwitzgebel
and Schwitzgebel. The most famous example of the stimoceiver in action
occurred at a Cordoba bull breeding ranch. Delgado stepped into the
ring with a bull which had had a stimoceiver implanted. The bull
charged Delgado, who pressed a remote control button which appeared to
cause the bull to stop its charge. Delgado claimed that the stimulus
caused the bull to lose its aggressive instinct; skeptics suggested
that the electrical impulse had caused the bull to turn aside. Although
the bull incident was widely mentioned in the popular media, Delgado
believed that his experiment with a female chimpanzee named Paddy was
more significant. Paddy was fitted with astimoceiver that detected a
brain signal called a spindle. When a spindle was detected, the
stimoceiver responded with a signal to the central gray area of Paddy's
brain, producing an 'aversive reaction'. Within hours her brain was
producing many fewer spindles.

id="ioc2" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

style="background-color: rgb(255, 255,

id="v28c" style="margin-left: 40px;font-family:tahoma;">id="vn:e" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">by MAHL GF,
During interviews, intracerebral electrical
stimulation of sharply localized areas in the temporal lobe of a young
woman with psychomotor epilepsy consistently produced ego-alien
ideational experiences similar to those observed by Penfield. The
responses were associated with considerable anxiety and with evoked
electrical seizure activity. The use of the interview as the
observational situation and careful study of the interview
tape-recordings made it possible to discover that the content of
theideational experiences was often a function of her prestimulation
"mental content." This finding led to an examination of Penfield's
formulations and to some alternative hypotheses about mechanisms that
might be involved in psychic responses to temporal-lobe stimulation.

style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">PMID: 14199657 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]

id="s_5z" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

May 17, 1965: A front page New York Times story
entitled, "Matador' With a Radio Stops Wired Bull: Modified Behavior in
Animals Subject of Brain Study" features the work of Dr. Jose M.R.
Delgado, inventor of the "stimoceiver," a miniature transponder
implanted in subjects’ heads to control behavior and emotions. The
article describes Delgado’s most famous experiment, wherein he steps
into a pen with a ‘wired" bull and stops the raging animal, mid-lunge,
via remote control. Delgado later suggests that this technology be used
to curb criminal and obsessive behavior in humans and urges Congress to
make "control of the mind" a national goal.

style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

id="gcg1" style="font-family:tahoma;">
  • id="l5yv">José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado (1969). Physical Control of the
    Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society. Harper and Row. ISBN
    0060902086. (lengthy excerpt excerpt excerpt)

  • style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Maggie Scarf. "Brain
    Researcher Jose Delgado Asks "What Kind of Humans Would We Like to
    Construct?""., New York Times, 1971-11-25.

  • style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Elliot S. Valenstein
    (1973). Brain Control: A Critical Examination of Brain Stimulation and
    Psychosurgery. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471897841. . A book
    critical of Delgado.

  • id="ag7n">

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Delgado JM
    (1977–1978). "Instrumentation, working hypotheses, and clinical aspects
    of neurostimulation". Applied Neurophysiology 40 (2–4): 88–110. PMID

  • id="w2fx">John Horgan (October 2004). "The Myth of Mind Control: Will
    anyone ever decode the human brain?". Discover 25 (10).

  • id="zc4a">John Horgan (October 2005). "The Forgotten Era of Brain
    Chips". Scientific American 293 (4): 66-73.

  • style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Wirehead Hedonism
    versus Paradise Engineering.

  • id="j.l3">

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Adam Keiper (Winter
    2006). "The Age of Neuroelectronics". The New Atlantis:


    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-family:Garamond;">AMYGDALA UNITARY

    Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1963 Aug;15:637-50.; PMID:
    14161515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    style="font-family:Garamond;">FREE BEHAVIOR AND

    DELGADO JM.; Int Rev Neurobiol. 1964;6:349-449.; PMID: 14282364 [PubMed
    - indexed for MEDLINE]

    by DELGADO JM, RUBINSTEIN L.; Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1964 Aug 1;150:530-46.; PMID: 14203132 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Intracerebral perfusion in awake monkeys.,
    by Delgado JM.; Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1966 Jun;161(2):442-62.; PMID: 4959059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Limbic system and free behavior.,
    by Delgado JM.; Prog Brain Res. 1967;27:48-68.; PMID: 4965657 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Injection of antidepressants in the amygdala of awake monkeys.,
    Allikmets L, Delgado JM.; Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1968
    Sep;175(1):170-8.; PMID: 4973156 [PubMed - indexed for

    Patent # 3,393,279 dated 16 July

    In 1958, Dr Flanagan, then a child of 14 developed a
    radio transmitter that made the brain into a radio reciever. This
    device transmits acoustic information to the brain by means of radio
    waves into the skin, bypassing the 8th Crainial Nerve. When he applied
    for a patent on the device, the patent examiner rejected the whole
    thing saying that such a device would go against all known laws of
    science. Over the following years, Dr Flanagan fought
    againstinsurmontable odds to prove that the device did indeed work. In
    the meantime, LIFE magazine ran a major article on Flanagan and the
    Neurophone , naming him as one of the top ten scientists in the US at
    the age of 17! In a final desperate move Flanagan flew to the patent
    office with a model of his invention and successfully demonstrated the
    device on a deaf employee in the patent examiner's office. The deaf man
    heard music for the first time in 15 years and broke down into tears.
    The examiner declared that theNeurophone was indeed a basic patentable
    device and approved the patent for release. Patent #
    3,393,279 dated 16 July 1968

    In the years that Dr Flanagan fought to recieve
    deserved recognition by the patent office, he grew into manhood and was
    working on Man- dolphin Communications for the US Navy when the patent
    was finally issued. While involved in Man-Dolphin research, he became
    interested in nerve signal information encoding, and began to develop
    electronic circuits that duplicated the process of pattern recognition
    observed in the human nervous system. This work led to research in
    Cryptography. During that period he developed a top secret sound
    scrambler that was virtually impossible to decode. Part of the
    scrambler was based on his research into nerve encoding.

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="ooxr">Patent # 3,647,970 dated 7 Mar 1972.

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"> Dr Flanagan believed
    that the pattern of nerve encoding used in the human speech recognition
    system could be used to make a betterNeurophone. He succeeded in
    perfecting an electronic curcuit that he believes duplicates the
    precise encoding of the Cochlea and 8th Crainial Nerve. When he applied
    for a patent on the new circuit, the patent aplication was immediately
    placed under top secrecy by the National Security Agency. The only
    explnation given at the time was that the circuit had potential uses in
    the defense of the country. Dr Flanagan was happy that the government
    considered that his device could be used in his country's defense. The
    only problem was that the government wanted the device free, and he
    spent 14 years on it.
    He hired attorneys and challenged the secrecy
    order for over five years. At the end of that period, the patent was
    released from secrecy and was approved for issue by the patent office.
    Patent #

    id="cv83">Operant conditioning of EEG in the
    unrestrained chimpanzee.,
    by Delgado JM, Johnston VS,
    Wallace JD, Bradley RJ.; Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1969
    Sep;27(7):701-2.; PMID: 4187397 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Fragmental organization of emotional behavior in the monkey brain.,
    by Delgado JM, Mir D.; Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1969 Jul 30;159(3):731-51.; PMID: 4981884 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Radiostimulation of the brain in primates and man.
    Becton, Dickinson and Company Oscar Schwidetzky Memorial Lecture., by
    Delgado JM. Anesth Analg. 1969 Jul-Aug;48(4):529-42. PMID: 4978402
    [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    United States Patent 3427454
    Inventors: James E. Webb
    Filed: DEc. 23, 1965 / February 1969

    United States Patent 3453546
    id="g-1c">Abstract: A
    telemeter for biomedical instrumentation in which two voltages are
    generated. The ration of the two voltages is proportional to the
    condition monitored. These voltages are alternately sampled, and
    equal-duration bursts of RF energy are transmitted. the intervals
    between the successive bursts are alternately T1 and T2. The ratio of
    T1 to T2 is equal to the ratio of the two voltages. Since the condition
    monitored monitored is a function of the ratio, errors caused by power
    supply fluctuations etc. are cancelled.
    Inventors: Thomas B. Fryer
    Filed: Nov 4, 1966 / July 1969


    id="i0y:273" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="pcc7" style="font-family:Garamond;">Operant
    conditioning of amygdala spindling in the free chimpanzee.,

    Delgado JM, Johnston VS, Wallace JD, Bradley RJ.; Brain Res. 1970 Sep
    16;22(3):347-62.; PMID: 5505539 [PubMed - indexed for
    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);font-family:tahoma;"
    id="pnx0" style=";font-family:tahoma;font-size:78%;" >United States
    Patent 3,576,554
    A telemetry system having a physically separate passive sensing circuit
    including a first magnetic coil which is coupled to the power source
    for supplying electrical current, a sensing device for modulating the
    electrical current in accordance with the variable sensed, and a second
    magnetic coil, for coupling the modulated current to the output device,
    the first and second magnetic coils being adjacent each other and
    oriented at substantially right angles in order to avoid interference
    between their respective magnetic fields.
    Inventors: Temps, Jr.; Alfred J., Summers; George D.
    Assignee: Fairchild Hiller Corporation (Farmingdale, Long Island, NY)
    Filed: November 30, 1967 / April 27, 1971


    id="yx3a" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);"> (search:
    Title: Shark Dart Electronic Circuit.
    Number: AD0164212 Corporate Author: DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY WASHINGTON D
    C Personal Author: Blanc,Clarence G.

    id="g3c:" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">class="postbody" id="rae1">Report Date: December 14, id="w77k">1971 Distribution Code: 01 - APPROVED FOR PUBLIC
    RELEASE Source Code: 110050 From the collection: Technical Reports.

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">class="postbody" id="i0y:295">

    style=";font-family:tahoma;font-size:78%;" >United States Patent
    class="postbody" id="bdp:">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="fl8j">3,647,970 dated 7 Mar 1972.

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >The Neurophone has been
    out now for nearly five months, and we are starting to get reports back
    from layman and professional users. The inital results are exciting.
    Several people have reported that their ability to remember data is
    increasing. People who could not remember telephone numbers are
    becoming walking phone books!

    id="ap37" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >href="">id="ox1.">

    id="g872" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >Patrick Flanagan's
    Neurophone; Hope for the deaf and superlearning for all; by Eddy

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >In order for bone
    conduction to work, the cochlea or inner ear that connects to the 8th
    cranial nerve must function. People who are nerve deaf cannot hear
    through bone conduction because the nerves in the inner ear are not
    functional. A number of nerve deaf people who have had the entire inner
    ear removed by surgery have been able to hear with the id="vmrg">Neurophone. The id="bk7b">Neurophone is really an electronic telepathy
    machine. Several tests prove that it bypasses the 8th cranial nerve or
    hearing nerve and transmits sound directly to the brain. This means
    that the Neurophone stimulates perception
    through a 7th or Alternate Sense!"

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >In 1962, Patrick predicted
    that electromedicine would revolutionize conventional health care. One
    of the relatively unknown, silent revolutions has already taken place
    in the form of blood and lymph cleansing devices. These simple, yet
    powerful, electronic devices have been popularized by Bob Beck,
    physicist and bio electronic researcher and Hulda Clark, N.D.

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" >In 1990, a remarkable
    discovery was made by Steven Kaali, MD and William Lyman, associate
    Professor of Pathology at Einstein College of Medicine in N.Y.C. It was
    shown that a minute current (50-100 micro amperes) can alter outer
    protein layers of the HIV virus and prevent it's attachment to receptor
    sites. (Science News March 30, 1991, pg. 207). The viruses loose the
    ability to make an enzyme crucial to their reproduction. This process
    may also reverse Epstein Barr (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), Hepatitis and
    Herpes B. Responsible users of this technology who are HIV positive,
    may expect a Negative P24 surface antigen orPCR test (no more HIV
    detectable in blood) after 30 days. A simplified version of this unit
    now makes self help feasible. The potential to clean andpotentize the
    blood banks of the world with this instrument is truly staggering. Bob
    Beck's Sept. 96 Explore Magazine Article notes a study on the life span
    of blood cells sealed under cover slips on microscope slides. While the
    average life of "normal" blood is about 4 days; blood cells treated
    with a mildmicrocurrent live for well over a month!

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:78%;" > In a curious parallel to
    Roxanne Kremer's work on interspecies communication with the Pink
    Amazon River Dolphins, Dr. Flanagan has made impressive technical
    contributions. In February, 1968, he applied for a patent on a device
    for translating human speech into dolphin language and vice/versa. This
    was a result of studies with dolphins in the lagoon of a small island
    off the coast of Oahu, Hawaii. A vocabulary of 30 words was discovered
    before a startling intervention. Six months after applying for the
    patent, it was placed under secrecy order #756, 124 by a U.S.Government
    surveillance agency. Five years later, another hard-fought legal battle
    rescinded the suppression and patent #3,647,970 was granted on March
    7th 1972. This speech processing patent is actually used as the circuit
    in the present version of the Neurophone.

    id="fzjs" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

    id="i0y:317" style=";font-family:tahoma;font-size:78%;" >United
    States Patent 3,690,309

    Abstract: A
    radiocapsule for registration of ionizing radiation in the cavities of
    human body, comprising a detector to register ionizing particles in the
    cavities of human body and to modulate r.f. signals of an inverter of a
    d.c. voltage into an a.c. sine voltage at the moment when ionizing
    particles are being registered, said inverter having apiezo-electric
    Inventors: Viktor Mikhailovich Pluzhnikov (Studenchesy
    gorodok MIFI), Korpus 6, kv. 32 (Moscow, Soviet Union), Karl Davidovich
    Kalantarov, ULITSA Serafimovicha (2, kv.), 469 (Moscow, Soviet Union),
    Jury Yakovlevich Gugnin, Timiryazevskaya ulitsa (10/12), kv. 108
    (Moscow, Soviet Union), Valentin Sergeevich Semenov, ULITSA Garibaldi
    Korpus 1, kv. 79 (Moscow, Soviet Union), Valentina Vasilievna Zelenina (Studenchesky gorodok MIFI),
    Korpus 9, kv. 15 (Moscow, Soviet Union), Albert Ivanovich Filatov, Nagornaya ulitsa, 64 (2a, kv.), 61 (Moscow, Soviet Union)
    Filed: August 5, 1970 / September 12, 1972

    id="neqp" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

    id="k_tg">Louis Herman; From Wikipedia,
    the free encyclopedia

    id="m.r_">Louis Herman is a researcher in of dolphin sensory abilities,
    dolphin cognition, and humpback whales. He is currently professor in
    the Department of href="">Psychology
    and a cooperating faculty member of the Department of title="Oceanography"

    at the href="">University
    of Hawaii at Manoa
    . He founded the Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal
    Laboratory (KBMML) in title="Honolulu"
    href="">Hawaii in 1970
    to study href="">bottlenose
    and communication. In 1975, he pioneered the scientific study of the
    annual winter href="">migration
    of href="">humpback
    into Hawaiian waters. Together with Adam Pack, he
    founded The Dolphin Institute in 1993, a non-profit corporation
    dedicated to href="">dolphins and
    href="">whales through
    education, research, and conservation. Herman is most known for his
    research into href="">animal
    and href="">echolocation,
    and more recently on the topic of imitation.

    His 1984 paper on animal
    (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984) was
    published in the human psychology journal title="Cognition"
    during the anti-animal language backlash generated by the skeptical
    critique of primate animal language programs by id="ohlt" title="Herbert S. Terrace (page does not exist)"
    in 1979. The key difference with previous primate
    work was that the dolphin work focused on language comprehension only.
    The problem with researching language production was the issue of
    scientific href="">parsimony:
    it is essentially impossible to verify that an animal truly understands
    its own artificial language production. This problem is eliminated with
    language comprehension studies, because the researchers control the
    form of the artificial language, and need only observe the behavior of
    the animal in response to the symbol sequence. Other controls included
    the use of a blinded observer who was not aware of the sentence given
    to the dolphin, as well as the balanced presentation of possible
    word/symbol combinations. Most importantly, the dolphins were tested on
    their responses to novel sentences they had never before been given, to
    test for concept generalization. Also, the dolphins were tested in
    novel sentence grammars and anomalous grammars as well, demonstrating
    that the dolphins' comprehension was not limited to a finite-state
    (slot-based) href="">syntax.

    The dolphins in this research were named title="Akeakamai"

    and Phoenix. Akeakamai is perhaps the best-known of the language
    dolphins, and was inserted as a character in title="David Brin"
    's href="">science
    novel href="">Startide
    . In the href="">Hawaiian
    , Akeakamai roughly corresponds to: lover (ake) of
    wisdom (href="">akamai).

    id="tt1y" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="aviu">United States Patent:

    id="umia" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Parks, III ,
    et al. May 7, 1974

    id="jbbs" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="i2.y">SYSTEM FOR TRANSMISSION AND ANALYSIS OF BIOMEDICAL DATA
    William href=""
    Louis Parks III,
    William Luster Grenoble Jr, Henry href=""
    Herman Harjes Jr, Lawrence James McCarthy ;
    Telserv, Inc.
    Abstract: A method and
    system for transmitting biomedical data to a remote station for
    subsequent processing. Analog electrical biomedical signals are sampled
    and digitized at a relatively low data rate and transmitted over a
    communications link of limited bandwidth to a remote station where the
    analog electrical biomedical signals are reconstructed from the digital
    data and are sampled and digitized at a substantially higher data rate
    for subsequent interpretation by a diagnostic computer. Alternatively,
    the received digital data are directly converted to a substantially
    higher digital data rate by means of a numerical algorithm, a form of
    digital interpolation.

    United States Patent 3,885,224
    Signal processing apparatus for imaging scanner
    This invention comprises apparatus for mathematical processing of a
    sequence of pulse signal time functions, produced by an ultrasonic
    imaging scanner. The basic processor described herein has a slower
    processing rate than the input rate of back-reflected pulse signal time
    function values. The reflected pulse signal time function values are
    stored, rearranged in sequence, and convoluted with a specified filter
    function to produce a processed image signal time function for imaging.
    Specific electronic apparatus is utilized including a digital computer
    with stored internal program forfourier convolution and filter function
    Inventors: Klahr; Carl N. (Lawrence, NY)
    Filed: September 13, 1973 / May 20, 1975

    United States Patent 3,714,429
    A method and means for tomographic imaging involving the use of a
    radioisotopic detector comprising a scintillation camera with a
    multichannel parallel-hole collimator, whose holes are all inclined at
    an identical angle toward the field of interest, and the moving of this
    detector in a series of back-and-forth linear motions, centered on a
    common axis of rotation and with the collimator in reversed
    orientations, in such manner that the accumulated count rate
    information can be computed, stored, retrieved and selectively
    integrated to produce a tomographic image of the radioactive
    distribution in any selected plane in the field scanned. The count rate
    information is collected and computed in terms of a fixed coordinate
    system and provides a reservoir of computed data which may be analyzed,
    utilizing a time-lapse summation technique, to present any particular
    tomographic plane for imaging.
    Inventors: Mozley; James M. (Camillus, NY), McAfee; John G. (Manluis, NY), Stabler; Edward P. (Syracuse, NY)
    Filed: September 28, 1970 / January 30, 1973

    United States Patent 3,889,226
    Scanned holography by sector scanning
    Sector or angular scanning of the source of coherent radiation and/or
    the receiver provides useful techniques in holography for producing a
    distortion which can be used to counteract the distortion due to
    wavelengths disparity in the recording and reconstruction steps. The
    sector or angular scanning may be performed mechanically or
    Inventors: Hildebrand; Bernard P.
    Assignee: Battelle Development Corporation (Richland, WA)
    Filed: September 12, 1973 / June 10, 1975

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">href=""

    id="x2uc" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Two-way transdermal
    communication with the brain.
    Delgado JMR, Lipponen V,
    Weiss G, del Pozo F, Monteagudo JL, McMahon R., Am Psychol id="ag7o">1975;30: pp. 265–73.

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="in_l">United States Patent: 3,952,216; April 20,

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Inventors: Theodore C.
    Madison, Harlan G. Frey; Assignee: The United States of America as
    represented by the Secretary of the Navy (Washington, DC)

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Abstract: A transducer
    comprising an array of prestressed, mass-loaded, piezoelectr
    low-frequency, transducer elements set within a housing, a thin
    alignment plate bonded to the planar radiating faces of the
    low-frequency transducer array, a pressure-release sheet bonded to the
    thin alignment plate, and a high frequency, planar, transducer array
    bonded to this pressure-release sheet. The high frequency transducer
    array in combination with its two backing layers forms an integral part
    of the low frequency transducer array during low frequency operation in
    addition to providing high frequency transmission and reception during
    high frequency operation. This transducer construction permits high
    transmitting and receiving sensitivities at widely separated

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">


    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="vg-u">Instrumentation, working hypotheses, and clinical aspects
    of neurostimulation.,
    by Delgado JM., Appl Neurophysiol.

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">The paper describes
    instrumentation developed in our laboratory for the therapy of
    neurological disorders, including

    id="ci.i" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">(a) hybrid stimulator
    for chronic use which retains constant current characteristics,
    providing a low resistance path during the quiescent phase between
    pulses to minimize thepostpulse charge;

    id="g7:-" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">(b) brain radio
    stimulators, crystal controlled, with digital logic section and an
    optoelectric sensor for telemetry of the intensity used;

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="e-cg">(c) external stimoceiver for
    experimental and clinical use, combining multichannel stimulator and
    EEG telemetric instrument;

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="p0ea">(d) transdermal stimoceivers, totally
    implantable for two-way communication with the brain through the intact
    skin; and

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="a8ci">(e) implantable microprocessor for
    detection of EEG signals which are used to trigger contingent brain

    id="omnm" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Our working hypotheses
    for chronic brain stimulation include

    id="i_l9" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="gpwz">(a) electrical modification of the
    functional set point of specific cerebral areas;

    (b) feedback-controlled stimulation; and
    id="o4l7">(c) establishment of artificial
    neuronal links with the aide of the computer.

    paper concludes with a discussion of the indications for therapeutic
    use of brain stimulation and criteria for patient selection.
    PMID: 101139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

    [Machines for exploring the
    ] [Article in French],
    by Delgado JM.,; Auxiliaire. 1977 Jun;50(2):14-6.PMID: 242540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    Hybrid stimulator for chronic experiments.,
    by Del Pozo F, Delgado JM.,; IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1978 Jan;25(1):92-4.PMID: 621108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    United States Patent 4,279,887
    Amides useful as brain imaging agents
    Certain radioiodine containing amides useful as brain imaging agents
    are disclosed. The compounds of the subject invention are represented
    by the formula ##STR1## wherein I is a radioisotope of iodine with
    I-123 being preferred, R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are the same or different
    and are selected from the grooup consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy,
    alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, aralkyl, anilino and carbamoylmethyl or
    R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 taken together with the nitrogen to which they are
    attached form a 5- or 6-membered ring.
    Inventors: Baldwin; Ronald M., Lin; Tz-Hong, Winchell; Harry S.
    Assignee: Medi-Physics, Inc. (Emeryville, CA)
    Filed: November 29, 1978 / July 21, 1981

    United States Patent 4,284,619
    Esters useful as brain imaging agents
    Certain radioiodine containing esters useful as brain imaging agents
    are disclosed. The compounds of the subject invention are represented
    by the formula ##STR1## wherein I is a radioisotope of iodine with
    iodine-123 being preferred and R is selected from the group consisting
    of alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl, aralkyl, a polyhydric alcohol radical
    and a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic ring.
    Inventors: Lin; Tz-Hong
    Assignee: Medi-Physics, Inc. (Emeryville, CA)
    Filed: November 29, 1978 / August 18, 1981

    United States Patent 4,162,500
    Ridged waveguide antenna submerged in dielectric liquid
    A system for remote microwave interrogation and imaging of biological
    tars comprises at least one microwave, double ridged waveguide antenna
    probe which operates at S-band frequencies, and a high dielectric
    liquid medium, preferably water, in which both the probe and the target
    are completely immersed. For imaging applications, the probe is
    positioned with respect to the target such that the target is in the
    near field of the antenna.
    Inventors: Jacobi; John H. (Bowie, MD), Larsen; Lawrence E. (Silver Spring, MD)
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army (Washington, DC)
    March 29, 1978 / July 24, 1979

    id="i0y:460" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">

    Elliot Valenstein; From
    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    id="di:f" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Elliot S. Valenstein,
    PhD, is a professor emeritus of psychology and neuroscience at the
    University of Michigan. His theories challenge the conventional
    assumption that mental illness is biochemical, rejecting the 'chemical
    imbalance' theories used by drug companies in marketing their products,
    contending people should be suspicious of such claims while suggesting
    the targets of the marketing are usually medicating themselves
    unnecessarily. In his 1998 book, Blaming the Brain: The Truth about
    Drugs and Mental Health,Valenstein argues that while psychotropic drugs
    sometimes do work, they do not even begin to address the real cause of
    mental disorders, since in his view biochemical theories are an
    entirely "unproven hypothesis" used to excuse what he sees as often
    unconscionable marketing practices of the drug industry.Valenstein
    acknowledges a combination of medications and psychotherapy often
    offers the best chance of success at treating common disorders, but
    stresses no one knows exactly why.Valenstein examines the various
    special interests behind the ascent in the latter half of the 20th
    century of purely biopsychiatric hypotheses, which appeal strongly to
    pharmaceutical companies. Their commercial motives are driven by the
    enormous, multi-billion dollar stakes involved in the intensely
    competitive marketing for such drugs as Prozac,Zyprexa, and Zoloft.
    Aggressive marketing, Valenstein contends, has dramatically changed
    practices in the mental health profession. He explores other aspects of
    the growing influence of drug companies, which sponsor research, lobby
    government officials, market directly to both consumers and primary
    care physicians (the primaryprescribers of psychiatric drugs), and
    pressure psychiatric journals to downplay studies casting doubt on drug
    safety and efficacy. In 2000,Valenstein presented "A Critique of
    Current Biochemical Theories of Mental Illness" as the keynote speaker
    at the Behavior Analysis Association of Michigan (BAAM) convention. In
    his 1986 book Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of
    Psychosurgery and Other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness,
    Valenstein explores the history of lobotomy’s heyday, in the 1940s and
    1950s, while questioning the legitimacy of widespread use of such
    unproven medical treatments. The truth, saysValenstein , is that we are
    only at the dawn of an understanding of mental illness. "The factors
    that fostered (the operations’) development and made them flourish,"
    explainsValenstein, "are still active today." Published books:

    • id="l0mi">Brain Control: A Critical Examination of Brain Stimulation
      and Psychosurgery (1973)

    • id="nwfe">

      style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">Brain Stimulation and
      Motivation: Research and Commentary (Ed.) (1973)

    • id="bik4">Great and Desperate Cures: The Rise and Decline of
      psychosurgery and other Radical Treatments for Mental Illness (1986)

    • id="p.6k">Blaming the Brain: The Truth About Drugs and Mental Health

    • id="v872">The War of the Soups and the Sparks: The Discovery of
      Neurotransmitters and the Dispute over how Nerves Communicate (2005)

    style="margin-left: 40px; font-family: tahoma;">


    id="dwdw" style="font-size:85%;">id="cvuz">1980:



    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">href=""

    id="yjnd" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">A brief history of brain
    stimulation. In: Principles of brain stimulation.
    by JS Yeomans, Oxford University Press: New York; 1990. pp. 3–19.



    A multi-channel telemetry
    system for brain microstimulation in freely roaming animals,
    Shaohua Xu, Sanjiv K. Talwar, Emerson S. Hawley, Lei Li and John K.
    Chapin, Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 29 may 2003.


    May 1, 1989: Former BBC
    producer and veteran foreign correspondent Gordon Thomas publishes
    Journey Into Madness, The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and
    Medical Abuse, connecting Jose Delgado’s views to those endorsed by
    SidneyGottlieb, of CIA/ MK-ULTRA fame. He explains: "Dr. Gottlieb and
    behaviorists of ORD [Office of Research and Development, CIA, Central
    Intelligence Agency] shared Jose Delgado's views that the day must come
    when the technique would be perfected for making not only animals but
    humans respond to electrically transmitted signals." Physical Control
    of the Mind, towards apsychocivilised society, 1968, by JMR Delgado

    align="left">June 16, 1995: Time magazine features an ad for an
    implantable pet transponder, oddly enough, aside an article about a
    militia man’s fears about the encroaching New World Order. By Aug.
    2002, such devices are so commonplace that the Christian Science
    Monitor reports on how the military is "adopting a Big Brother
    approach" to "implanting microchips in cats and dogs that live on
    government land" in order to track down and penalize military families
    who abandon their pets.

    1996: "Click Here to upload your soul," advises one of many articles on
    British Telecom’s Martlesham Heath Laboratories’ "Soul Catcher" implant
    chip, which, as Personal Computer World explains, "will be implanted
    behind a person’s eye and will record all the thoughts and experiences
    of their lifetimes." Dr. Chris Winter tells London’s Daily Telegraph,
    "This is the end of death... By combining this information with a
    record of the person’s genes, we could recreate a person physically,
    emotionally and spiritually."

    Oct. 15, 1998: The BBC reports on "bionic brain
    implants" developed by American scientists. "Over several months, the
    implant becomes naturally 'wired' into thepatient's brain as neurons
    grow into the cones and attach themselves to the electrodes mounted
    inside," the report asserts.

    23, 1998: Cybernetics Prof. Kevin Warwick becomes the first known human
    to communicate with machines via a microchip implanted in his body.
    Predicting that such implants will eventually replace time cards,
    tracking devises and credit cards, Warwick tells ABC News, "I feel
    mentally different." Later, he tells, "After a few days I
    started to feel quite a closeness to the computer, which was very
    strange. When you are linking your brain up like that, you change who
    you are. You do become a 'borg.' You are not just a human linked with
    technology; you are something different and your values and judgment
    will change." He also admits, "It does make me feel that Orwell was
    probably right about the Big Brother issue."

    Dec. 7, 2000: CNN reports on Dr. Kevin Warwick’s
    next step, implanting a chip that interacts with his central nervous
    system. "This summer, a professor plans to take a step closer to
    becoming a cyborg -- part human, part computer -- by implanting a
    silicon chip that communicates with his brain," CNN says. With his wife
    also getting "chipped," Warwick later discusses the possibility that
    couples might one day read each other’s minds and experience each
    other’s pleasure (making faked orgasms obsolete). Their experience is
    recorded in the book, I Cyborg.



    Microelectronics meets Molecular and

    by Peter Fromherz, Technical
    Digest IEDM (International Electronic Devices Meeting) 2001, 16/1

    Abstract: The electrical interfacing of
    nerve cells and semiconductor microstructures is considered. The
    coupling of the electron conducting silicon with ion conducting neurons
    relies on a close contact of the chip and the cell membrane with its
    ion channels. Excitation of neuronal activity is achieved by capacitive
    interaction with the channels and recording by the response of
    transistors to open channels. Integratedneuroelectronic systems are
    obtained by outgrowth of a neuronal net on silicon and by two-way
    interfacing of the neuronal and electronic components.

    id="xa_l" align="left">

    align="left">Sept. 5, 2001: ABC News’ Nicholas Regush warns that
    "mind control" could be on the horizon. "On the bright side, the powers
    of this science could be used to mend broken and diseased brains," he
    says. "On the dark side, there would be plenty of opportunity to tinker
    with consciousness and control human behavior in menacing fashion."

    May 1, 2002: An ABC
    report entitled, "Scientists Develop Remote-Controlled Rats" describes
    a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)-funded project,
    wherein rats, "each wired with three hair-fine electrical probes to
    their brains," are "directed through remote control by an operator
    typing commands on a computer." Lead scientist Dr.Sanjiv Talwar admits
    to the BBC that "the idea is sort of creepy" and tells the Guardian
    that remote controlled animals could be used for nefarious purposes,
    such as assassinations.

    10, 2002: A family has microchips inserted into their bodies on
    national TV. An Applied Digital Solutions press release boasts:
    "VeriChip has been the subject of widespread media attention for the
    past few months, everything from Time Magazine to the Today Show, the
    Early Show,CNN's American Morning with Paula Zahn, CBS Weekend Evening
    News, and the O'Reilly Factor on Fox News. We're delighted that Good
    Morning America and CBS Evening News will cover the first-ever
    "chipping" procedures on May 10th.


    Weltneuheit: Bio-Neuro-Chip von
    Infineon Technologies kommuniziert mit lebendem Zellgewebe -
    Analyse lebender Nervenzellen bedeutet Quantensprung für
    Neurowissenschaften und Medikamentenentwicklung

    München, San Francisco, U. S. A. – 11. Februar 2003
    – Forscher von Infineon Technologies haben in Zusammenarbeit mit dem
    Max-Planck-Institut durch einen neu entwickelten Bio-Sensorchip
    direkten Kontakt zu lebenden Nervenzellen hergestellt. Der „Neuro-Chip“
    nimmt elektrische Signale von lebenden Nervenzellen und Zellverbänden
    auf, verarbeitet sie und gibt sie an ein Computersystem weiter. So
    eröffnet der Neuro-Chip Forschern neue Einblicke in die biologische
    Funktion von Nervenzellen, von biologischen neuronalen Netzen und
    Hirngewebe. In der zellgestützten Medikamentenentwicklung werden
    effiziente Tests zur Wirkung von Medikamenten auf lebende Zellen
    machbar. Die ersten praktischen Messungen mit dem Neuro-Chip wurden
    erfolgreich am Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie in Martinsried bei
    München, Infineon's Projektpartner und einem der weltweit führenden
    Institute im Bereich der Biowissenschaften, durchgeführt.

    15, 2002: During the height of the ‘Summer of the Abducted Child,’ the
    Philadelphia Inquirer runs a front page story on the new "high-tech
    approach to child security" -- i.e. the "chipping" of children.
    Pointing to Applied Digital Solutions’ "prototype for an implantable
    GPS unit that could pinpoint a child's location," the article asks:
    "Would a parent really place a device under the skin of his or her
    child to guard against a vague threat?" before offering ADS spokesman
    MatthewCossolotto’s reply: "We have GPS units for our cars. If your car
    is stolen, we can locate it. Do we love our cars more than our

    March 7,
    2003: An article in the Kansas City Star features University of Kansas
    research professor Jerome Dobson "a respected leader in the field of
    geographic information technologies" who warns that GPS technology
    might lead to a form of "geoslavery" which could make "George Orwell's
    'Big Brother' nightmare...look amateurish."

    March 12, 2003: The BBC runs an article entitled
    "Scientists develop 'brain chip,' which states that "US scientists say
    a silicon chip could be used to replace thehippocampus , where the
    storage of memories is coordinated." The testing, beginning on rats and
    rapidly proceeding to monkeys, will ultimately be conducted on humans.

    June 2003: "In a few
    months, researchers at the University of Southern California will test
    the world's first prosthetic brain part," Popular Science asserts,
    crediting biomedical engineer Theodore Berger with creating "a 2
    mm-wide silicon chip that he hopes will one day substitute for damaged
    or diseased brain regions." Potential military uses for the brain chip,
    which is partially funded byDARPA , includes building "sophisticated
    electronics" and integrating them into human brains to possibly "one
    day lead to cyborg soldiers and robotic servants."

    id="n92y" align="left">
    June 2003: In an article published on
    DARPA's Web site, Dr. Alan Rudolph explains how the agency's "Brain
    Machine Interfaces Program" will "create new technologies for
    augmenting human performance" by "access[ing] codes in the brain" and
    "integrat[ing] them into peripheral device or system operations.
    [BuzzFlash] Though the article is no longer available (and the term
    "brain interface program" is nowhere to be found) the link now directs
    browsers to an article on "Human Assisted Neural Devices," which also
    discusses accessing "codes in the brain."

    align="left">id="zj3k" style="font-size:0;">
    16, 2004: The headline, "Is It Possible to Download Knowledge into the
    Brain?: Mind-machine interfaces will be available in the near future,
    and several methods hold promise for implanting information" alerts
    readers of href="">Better
    to futuristic possiblities.

    April 14, 2004: The Associated Press blasts the
    headline "FDA Approves Brain Implant Devices." Citing benefits to those
    with physical impairments and brain disease, scientist Richard Andersen
    notes that "surgeons are already implanting devices into human brains
    -- sometimes deeply -- to treat deafness and Parkinson's disease" and
    says, "I think there is a consensus among many researchers that the
    time is right to begin trials in humans."

    May 28, 2004: Reporting for the Chicago Tribune on
    today’s "transhumanists" (those who believe we’re in a "transitional
    phase between our human past and post-human future") Margie Wylie
    asserts that "Humanity is on its way out."

    June 25, 2004: Washington University reports that,
    "For the first time in humans, a team headed by University researchers
    has placed an electronic grid atop patients' brains to gather motor
    signals that enable the patients to play a computer game using only the
    signals from their brains."

    12, 2004: Japanese school children will soon be tagged with tracking
    devices, albeit non-intrusively, an article in CNETAsia explains. "The
    rights and wrongs of RFID-chipping human beings have been debated since
    the tracking tags reached the technological mainstream. Now, school
    authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka have decided the benefits
    outweigh the disadvantages and will now be chipping children in one
    primary school," the article asserts.

    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">
    Electronic MEMS for triggered delivery.,
    by Amy C. Richards Grayson, Rebecca Scheidt Shawgo, Yawen Li and Michael J. Cima;
    Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 56, Issue 2, 10 Feb. 2004, pp. 173-184,
    Biosensing and Drug Delivery at the Microscale;
    Abstract: Implantable electronic
    devices such as pacemakers and neural implants are often used for
    electrical stimulation. The usage ofmicrofabrication techniques to
    produce microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has allowed engineers to
    address a wider range of clinical indications. A new direction in the
    area of MEMS technology is the goal of achieving pulsatile drug
    delivery. The digital capabilities of MEMS may allow greater temporal
    control over drug release compared to traditional polymer-based
    systems, while the batch-processing techniques used in the
    microelectronics industry can lead to greater device uniformity and
    reproducibility than is currently available to the pharmaceutical
    industry. A repertoire of structures, includingmicroreservoirs,
    micropumps, valves, and sensors, is being developed that will provide a
    strong foundation for the design of integrated, responsive MEMS for
    drug delivery.
    2.1. Neural implants
    electrical nature of MEMS devices makes them potentially useful for
    applications whereby neural stimulation, recording, or interfacing is
    desirable. Prostheses for neural stimulation are one of the more common
    embodiments ofMEMS for neural implants.
    Micromachined silicon
    microprobes developed at the University of Michigan have come to be
    widely used [16]. These microprobes allow stimulation of and recording
    from neurons in the central nervous system [17, 18 and 19], as well as
    delivery of chemicals at the cellular level [20]. Some researchers are
    developing interfaces that will eliminate the need tohardwire these
    microprobes to an external power supply and signal processing unit
    [17]. Other types of implantable neural stimulators have been developed
    for the treatment of chronic pain [21]. These devices are designed to
    deliver a current stimulus to the region of the spinal cord that
    corresponds to the painful portion of thepatient's body. The system
    consists of the surgically implanted module, an external computer
    system that is used by the physician to program the module through
    induction, and an external switch that the patient uses to activate the
    device.Polyimide sieve electrodes have also been used to stimulate and
    regenerate peripheral nerve axons, while cuff electrodes can interface
    with intact peripheral nerve bundlesnoninvasively in the absence of
    physiological electrical activation, for example, in the case of a
    spinal cord injury [22]. Other researchers have developed microprobes,
    fabricated through electroplating and other microfabrication
    procedures, which can be used to stimulate the deep-brain regions such
    as the subthalamic nucleus [23]. These devices could be used in
    patients with Parkinson's disease to reduce or eliminate tremors.
    prostheses are also used for stimulation of paralyzed muscles in order
    to prevent atrophy [24 and 25]. These devices have been shown to be
    both safe and effective in animals, and have an exceedingly small
    volume (approximately 100 times smaller than conventional cochlear
    implants and pacemakers) that allows them to be implanted using a
    catheter insertion tool. An implantable neural stimulator has also been
    developed and tested in dogs as a treatment for incontinence
    [26].Polyimide microelectrodes that are microfabricated via
    spin-coating and either photolithography or dry etching have also been
    used to record EMG signals from cockroaches during walking [27].
    researchers have focused on the interface between the neural implant
    and the nerve cell itself and are exploring ways to improve the
    integration between the implant and the physiological environment. For
    example,microcontact printing (μCP) has been used to pattern
    poly-Image-lysine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold
    microelectrode arrays in order to control the geometry of a neuronal
    network grown in vitro [28]. Rat hippocampal neurons consistently grew
    near the electrode regions that had the poly-Image-lysine SAMs ,
    suggesting that this method may improve the likelihood and the fidelity
    of recording electrical activity of the neuronal cells. Some work has
    investigated the growth and function of dorsal root ganglia neurons on
    a flexiblepolydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate having 20-μm-wide
    channels that contain electrodes made from a conducting polymer
    hydrogel (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with
    poly-(styrenesulfonate) [29]. The polymer hydrogel electrodes had lower
    impedance than electrodes made out of other materials typically used
    for neural recordings, indicating better sensitivity for recording
    nerve signals at physiological frequencies. Directed cell growth of the
    neurons along the channels was achieved onPDMS substrates that were
    coated with laminin. The low impedance, large charge delivery capacity,
    and ability to chemically modify the hydrogel, as well as the
    flexibility of the PDMS substrate, may offer significant advantages
    over neural MEMS based solely on silicon and traditional
    microfabrication materials. A polyimide-based biohybrid device has also
    been developed that consists of a sieve-shaped stimulating microprobe
    that is seeded with gene-manipulated neural cells that have an
    increased resistance to apoptosis [30]. This device is designed for
    implantation and outgrowth of the seeded nerve cells to create a
    junction with a particular skeletal muscle of interest, in the case
    where the motor neuron andneuromuscular junction necessary for movement
    of skeletal muscle are absent.

    • 16.
    • 17. A BiCMOS wireless interface chip for
      micromachined stimulating microprobes., by M. Ghovanloo, K. Beach, K.D.
      Wise and K. Najafi,
      In: 2nd Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special
      Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, IEEE,
      Piscataway, NJ (2002), pp. 277–282.
    • id="c8-z">18. A 16-channel CMOS neural stimulating array., by S.J.
      Tanghe and K.D. Wise, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 27 (1992), pp.
    • 19. A 64-site multishank
      CMOS low-profile neural stimulating probe., by C. Kim and K.D. Wise,
      IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 31 (1996), pp. 1230–1238.
    • id="z_mm">20. A multichannel neural probe for selective chemical
      delivery at the cellular level., by J. Chen and K.D. Wise,
      Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, The Foundation, Cleveland
      Heights, Ohio (1994), pp. 256–259.
    • 21. A
      miniaturized implantable spinal cord microstimulator for treating
      intractable pain., by J. Mouïne and K.A. Ammar,
      In: 1st Annual
      International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnology in
      Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2000), pp. 630–634.
    • id="x3pc">22. Biomedical microdevices for neural interfaces., by
      J.-U. Meyer, M. Schüttler, H. Thielecke and T. Stieglitz,
      In: 1st
      Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on
      Microtechnology in Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2000),
      pp. 447–453.
    • 23. Micromachined probes for deep-brain stimulation., by P.S. Motta and J.W. Judy,
      1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on
      Microtechnology in Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2000),
      pp. 251–254.
    • 24. Design and fabrication
      of hermetic microelectronic implants., by G.E. Loeb, J.R. Richmond,
      W.H. Moore and R.A. Peck,
      In: 1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS
      Special Topic Conference on Microtechnology in Medicine and Biology,
      IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2000), pp. 455–459.
    • id="p-od">25. Effects of regional stimulation using a miniature
      stimulator implanted in feline posterior biceps femoris., by T.
      Cameron, F.J.R. Richmond and G.E. Loeb,
      IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 45 (1998), pp. 1036–1043.
      id="m00h">26. Implantable selective stimulator to improve bladder
      voiding: design and chronic experiments in dogs., by S. Boyer, M.
      Sawan, M. Abdel-Gawad, S. Robin and M.M. Elhilali,
      IEEE Trans. Rehabil. Eng. 8 (2000), pp. 464–470.
      id="d7q1">27. Fabrication and test of implantable thin-film
      electrodes for stimulation and recording of biological systems., by A.
      Metz, F. Oppliger, R. Holzer, B. Buisson, D. Bertrand and P. Renaud,
      1st Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on
      Microtechnology in Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2000),
      pp. 619–623.
    • 28. Gold surface
      microelectrode arrays permit geometrical control of neuronal networks
      via thiol linking chemistry., by Y. Nam, B.C. Wheeler and G. Brewer,
      2nd Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on
      Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2002),
      pp. 132–135.
    • 29. Polymer hydrogel
      microelectrodes for neural communication., by T. Nyberg, O. Inganäs and
      H. Jerregård, Biomed. Microdevices 4 (2002), pp. 43–52.
    • id="yn3:">30. A biohybrid microprobe for implanting into the
      peripheral nervous system., by J.-U. Meyer, T. Stieglitz, H.H. Ruf, A.
      Robitzki, V. Dabouras, K. Wewetzer and T. Brinker,
      In: 2nd Annual
      International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies
      in Medicine and Biology, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (2002), pp. 265–268.

    style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);font-size:85%;" >id="ym4e">id="lvx1">
    Draper Laboratory’s biomedical engineering capabilities
    being applied to the development of first-of-a-kind biomedical devices
    and technologies for applications in health care diagnostics,
    therapeutics, and national defense. The largest collaboration in which
    Draper currently is involved is the Center for Integration of Medicine
    and Innovative Technology (CIMIT), of which we are a founding member
    with Partners HealthCare and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    (MIT). Other important partnerships include collaborations with
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; with academic groups at MIT,
    Harvard University, and Tufts University; and with commercial companies
    in the sensing and pharmaceuticals businesses. Biomedical applications
    such as point-of-care diagnostic sensors and drug delivery devices
    require a wide range of technical expertise and engineering
    disciplines, and the Laboratory has strong capabilities in many of
    these domains. Interdisciplinary groups of mechanical engineers,MEMS
    fabrication experts, chemists, and systems engineers are designing
    high-precision miniature components and devices for implantable sensors
    and drug delivery systems. For implantable use, small size and low
    power are crucial; microelectronics design engineers are developing
    low-power electronics which minimize volume and enable insertion of
    devices into locations such as the eye and ear for a variety of
    therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Novelmicrofluidic devices,
    which function as small pumps and valves, are being designed and
    fabricated in the MEMS laboratory; these components are approximately
    20 times smaller than commercially available hardware with similar
    functionality and performance. Packaging of small implantable and
    diagnostic devices is accomplished using advanced sealing and packaging
    techniques andbiocompatible materials and processes. Many biomedical
    engineering projects are conducted at the nexus of biology,
    microfabrication technology, and computation. Such multidisciplinary
    efforts include the fabrication of replacement tissues and organs for
    therapeutic applications such as transplantation, the advancement of
    tools for drug discovery, and the construction of testbeds for the
    id="l875" style="font-size:85%;">velopment of vaccines against
    infectious diseases and biological warfare agents.


    id="h.8o" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); color: rgb(0, 0,
    0);font-size:85%;" >id="b3bq">ne Comprehensive
    Biofeedback Solution - One Clear Choice

    id="jdbw">Only one biofeedback provider delivers such breadth of
    professional training programs and equipment. Every Stens workshop is
    devoted to hands-on training with the most advanced computerized,
    wireless and stand-alone biofeedback and neurofeedback systems making
    it easy for clinicians to experience the truly best system for their
    practice. Stens is the oldest and most established nationally
    accredited workshop; you’ll learn with the most experienced teachers
    and earn the most didactic hours forBCIA. It's easy to see why there's
    only one clear choice when it comes to biofeedback

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    id="kl7a" style="font-size:0;">The SKIL Report Generator assists evaluation of
    clients for neurofeedback training. This software program is not
    intended for medical use.


    style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">href="">

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">style=";font-family:geneva,arial,helvetica;font-size:85%;" >id="du_q">Elixa has evolved as the result of
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    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">style="font-family:Arial,Helvetica,Geneva,Sans-serif,sans-serif;">id="cvzg">BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.

    id="hksu" style="font-family:tahoma;">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">style="font-family:Arial,Helvetica,Geneva,Sans-serif,sans-serif;">We
    are a medical and consumer device and systems developer and
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    technology, and clinical and personalneurofeedback. style="font-family:Arial,Helvetica,Geneva,Sans-serif,sans-serif;">Our
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    states, and to make these products available for widespread use. We
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    develop and/or provide EEG-based equipment, software, systems,
    publications and training directed toward the emerging fields
    ofneurofeedback, mental fitness, peak performance, and brain
    modification technology.

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">href="">

    id="dyaa">style="font-size:0;">NeuroGuide EEG Software:
    id="ng9i" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="ltc5" style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">Accuracy, Simplicity, Flexibility

  • id="vb7b">style="font-size:0;">Dynamic Normative EEG Comparisons in real-time during

  • id="vjc7">style="font-size:0;">Automatic Artifact Rejection with Manual Editing

  • id="qutj">style="font-size:0;">href="">Multiple
    EEG File Imports
    Calibrated by Microvolt sine

  • id="f1v5">id="k9_k" style="font-size:0;">href="">Instantaneous
    Split-Half Reliability and Test Re-Test

  • id="v1bu">style="font-size:0;">href="">Eyes Open and
    Eyes Closed Lifespan Norms
    for different common and bipolar

  • id="i_ca">style="font-size:0;">href=",%20phase,%20&%20other%20analysesWEB.htm">Compute
    EEG coherence, phase delays, amplitude asymmetry

  • id="uqa:">style="font-size:0;">href="">Export
    to the Key Institute LORETA Equation & Talairach

  • id="rq2h">style="font-size:0;">href="">Time
    Domain Output Files Formatted for Easy Import to LORETA Key

  • id="nk_4">style="font-size:0;">href="">EEG
    Filter Selections - Band pass, band stop, hi-pass and low-pass flexible

  • id="rv.i">style="font-size:0;">href="">Tab
    Delimited Output Files for easy importing into other programs

  • id="gnnu">style="font-size:0;">href="">NeuroStat
    - pre vs. post treatment analysis & group
    comparisons (add on to the base

  • id="f1be">style="font-size:0;">href="">NeuroBatch
    for automatic processing of large numbers of EEG
    files (add on to the base

  • id="wb6:">style="font-size:0;">href="">Raw
    or Edited EEG Printouts of Different Montage Selections
    for Conventional EEG

  • id="usjw">style="font-size:0;">href="">FFT
    using a 0.5 Hz resolution and 1 Hz Color Maps
    from 0 to 50

  • id="o5zm">style="font-size:0;">href="">Export
    edited EEG in Lexicor file format and ASCII

  • id="e_oh">style="font-size:0;">href="">FFT
    Normative Power Ratios and Peak Frequency in Different

  • id="syfl">style="font-size:0;">href="">Mild Head
    Injury Discriminant Function and TBI EEG Severity Index
    on to the base

  • id="yl:v">style="font-size:0;">href="">Learning
    Disability Discriminant Function
    (add on to the base

  • id="ffao">style="font-size:0;">href="">LORETA
    normative databases
    eyes open and eyes closed - birth to 82 years (add on to
    the base

  • id="m3q-">style="font-size:0;">href="">LORETA
    Statistics - Paired t-tests, independent t-tests, group t-tests,

  • id="q8n0">style="font-size:0;">href="">Single
    channel examination
    with a mouse click and
    joint-time-frequency-analysis (JTFA)

  • id="j1b4">style="font-size:0;">href="">Brain
    Performance Index
    – Prediction of Neuropsychological test
    scores (add on to the base

  • id="y2qf">style="font-size:0;">href="">LORETA
    Brodman area statistical hypotheses
    prior to computing

  • id="p-xa">style="font-size:0;">href="">Multiple
    Color Topographic Maps

  • id="d67r">style="font-size:0;">Select
    from Different Topographic Map Colors and Z Score

  • id="z3w8">style="font-size:0;">href="">LORETA
    3-Dimensional Source Correlation
    s with Brodmann Areas and
    Talairach Atlas

  • id="jp0t">style="font-size:0;">href="">Joint-Time
    Frequency-Analysis (JTFA) for Time and Frequency Analyses of

  • id="lu53">style="font-size:0;">Video Recording Synchronized to the

  • id="bb4l">style="font-size:0;">href="">Dynamic
    Time-Frequency Z Scores
    to Facilitate Visual Examination of

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    id="r7qu" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">id="vxrv" style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">

    style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">Cal physicists make a radio 10,000 times
    thinner than a human

    style="font-size:0;">style="font-size:0;">Physicists at UC Berkeley say they have produced the world's
    smallest radio out of a single carbon nanotube that is 10,000 times
    thinner than a human hair. Professor Alex Zettl led a team that
    developed the minuscule filament, which can be tuned to receive AM or
    FM transmissions. Zettl
    Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of
    California at Berkeley Zettl said the device, built by graduate student
    Kenneth Jensen, is the first radio within the size range of
    nanotechnology, which covers inventions no larger than 100 billionths
    of a meter. Thenanoradio is 100 billion times smaller than the first
    commercial radios of the early 20th century. It is a thousand times
    smaller than the most minute radios in use today, which are based on
    silicon chip technology.The research team has no commercial partners
    yet, butZettl said the practical applications of the nanoradio could
    include cell phones, climate-monitoring systems and radio-controlled
    diagnostic probes that could move through the human bloodstream. As
    long as 10 years ago, scientists had managed to build individual
    components of a radio on thenanoscale, he said. But Zettl and his
    colleagues figured out how to make a single nanotube perform all the
    functions of a radio: It serves as an antenna, tuner, amplifier and
    demodulator. The demodulator eliminates any frequencies from a radio
    transmission except the signal to be played, such as a song. class="georgia md" id="i0y:849">The nanotube can also function as a
    transmitter. Theoretically, thousands of nanoradios distributed through
    the air or in the bloodstream could send back signals about air quality
    or the state of a patient's cells, Zettl said. Carbon nanotubes are
    immensely strong compounds made of carbon atoms linked in a structure
    that looks like chicken wire. The carbon sheets can be formed into
    hollow tubes.Zettl's research team tweaked the nanotube structures and
    found that multi-walled cylinders - tubes within tubes - were better
    for picking up AM and FM transmissions. Single-wallednanotubes were
    best for receiving the frequencies used in cell phones. The team built
    a transmitter in the lab based on conventional electronics, and first
    proved that thenanoradio could pick up and play "Layla" about 10 months
    ago. But the scientists held the news for publication in the journal
    Nano Letters, which posted it online on Wednesday. Along with Jensen
    and Zettl, the co-authors of the paper were UC Berkeley postdoctoral
    fellow Jeff Weldon and physics graduate student Henry Garcia. The
    project was funded by the National Science Foundation and the
    Department of Energy.

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