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A Brief Summary of the History of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation;
by Alvaro Pascual-Leone and Timothy Wagner; Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Boston, USA
In 43 AD, Scribonious Largus, a court physician to the Roman emperor Claudius, recorded in his book ‘Compositiones Medicamentorum’, a most detailed collection of
drug compounds or recipes in use by physicians at that time. Among these he mentions the use of electrical currents to treat headaches and gout by applying electric torpedo fish to the affected regions or by placing painful extremities into a pool of water containing torpedo fish. The resulting electrical shocks presumably stunned the peripheral skin receptors, or affected spinal or brain structures inducing an immediate and residual numbness in the extremity and an associated transient period of pain relief. In this application electrical torpedo fish were a very early means oftranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for therapeutic purposes. This form of treatment reportedly became particularly popular for the treatment of gouty arthritis. In the late 18th century, Luigi Galvani began laying the foundations for modern electrophysiology and bioelectric theory with his famous “animal electricity” experiments and the invention of the voltaic cell. While many people consider Galvani the father of modernelectrophysiology , French physician Charles Le Roy actually began experimenting with the use of electricity to influence physiological function in 1755.
From Skews Me, Brain Implants; http://www.skewsme.com/implants.html
In id="e6om">id="veq.">1870,two German researchers named [Eduard] Hitzig and [Gustav] Fritsch electrically stimulated the brains of dogs, demonstrating that certain portions of the brain were the centers of motor function. The American Dr. RobertBartholow, within four years, demonstrated that the same was true of human beings. By the turn of the [twentieth] century in Germany Fedor Krause was able to do a systematic electrical mapping of the human brain, using conscious patients undergoing brain surgery [Morgan, James P., “The First Reported Case of Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Journal of History of Medicine at http://www3.oup.co.uk/jalsci/scope/; Zimmerman, M., “Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain,” Human Neurobiology, 1982].
id="c4wt" style="font-family: tahoma;">href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/l230867105183973/fulltext.pdf"
id="kufe" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Lapicque’s 1907 paper: from frogs to integrate-and-fire,
by N Brunel M.C.W. van Rossum, Biological Cybernetics 4 Oct. 2007, DOI 10.1007/s00422-007-0190-0
Abstract: Exactly 100 years ago, Louis Lapicque published a paper on the excitability of nerves that is often cited in the context of integrate-and-fire
neurons. id="cif-">class="postbody" id="d3e1">Wediscuss Lapicque’s contributions along with a translation of the original publication.
Another early researcher into electrical stimulation of the brain was Walter Rudolf Hess, who began research into ESB in the 1930s, jolting patients’ brains with shocks administered through tiny needles that pierced the skull. His experiments [also] included the insertion of fine electrically conductive wires into the brains ofanaesthetized cats. To noone’s great surprise, given mild electrical stimulation the cats went beserk [Vance Packard, The People Shapers (New York: Bantam Books, 1977); “Hess, Walter Rudolf,” Encyclopedia Americana (New York: Harper & Row, 1969); “Hess, Walter Rudolph,” Funk &Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (New York: Funk & Wagnalls Inc., 1973)].
id="kzck" style="font-family: tahoma;">href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/79/2048/299"
id="fo3c" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Electrical excitation of the nervous system—introducing a new principle: remote control.,
by Light RU, Chaffee EL., Science 30 mar. 1934;79: pp. 299–300.
During the decades of the 1940s and 1950s, Wilder Penfield…experimented with electrical brain stimulation on patients undergoing surgery. One of Penfield’s discoveries was that the application of electricity on alert patients could stimulate the memory of past events [Project Open Mind] (full pic, video).
Severed Head Lives "Shocking" http://nl.youtube.com/watch?=cEcUTMpyRLY
In the early 1940s, Soviet scientists experimented severed heads and bringing life back to dead bodies of animals.
Russian Experiment: Decapitated dog head kept alive http://youtube.com/watch?=oHLNmw0vHm4
Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (1940) Part 1 http://youtube.com/watch?=WfIUnIpSbQI&feature=related
Experiments in the Revival of Organisms (1940) Part 2 http://youtube.com/watch?=KSYOD1_JPw4&feature=related
Dogs Head Revived http://youtube.com/watch?=k5yRan-aIyc
This film is shown through the courtesy of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship and is distributed through the American-Soviet Medical Society in New York.
SOVIET FILM AGENCY presents EXPERIMENTS IN THE REVIVAL OF ORGANISMS; Research in the Revival of Animal Organisms by means of an Artificial Blood Circulation System carried out at the institute of Experimental Physiology and Therapy. USSR. Scenario and Scientific Supervision Doctor of Medical Science S.S.Bryukhonenko; Direction D.I. Yashin; Photography E.V. Kashina; Animation T.D. Tikhomirova;Production TECHFILM STUDIO, MOSCOW, 1940; Introduced by Professor J.B.S. Haldane, F.R.S.
FROM THE REVIVAL OF SEPARATE ORGANS TO THE REVIVAL OF A WHOLE ORGANISM
A Russian USSR experiment, showing a decapitated dog's head being kept alive by pumping oxygenated blood to the head. Dog clearly reacts to external stimuli. Experiment in the revival of organs. Project show that with adequate external technology: lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, stomachet al can be replaced.
id="h_ne" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0);">style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">style="font-size:85%;">Atechnique for chronic remote nerve stimulation.,
by Lafferty JM, Farrell JJ., Science 5 aug. 1949;110: pp. 140–141
Robert G. Heath and Dr. Russell Moore,
funded largely by the U.S. military and the CIA, experiment with mind manipulation by inserting up to 125 electrodes into subjects’ brains (alongside drugs such as LSD).
Heath also suggests that lobotomies be performed on patients, not for therapeutic reasons, but for the convenience of the hospital staff.
Robert Galbraith Heath; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dr. Robert Galbraith Heath (1915 - 24 September 1999) was an American psychiatrist. He followed the theory of biological psychiatry that organic defects were the sole source of mental illness, and that consequently mental problems were treatable by physical means. Heath founded the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at Tulane University, New Orleans, in 1949 and remained its Chairman until 1980 He performed many experiments there involving electrical stimulation of the brain via surgically implanted electrodes. This work was partially financed by the CIA and the US military. One of his collaborators was the Australian psychiatrist Harry Bailey, who later reminisced that they had used African Americans as subjects "because they were everywhere and cheap experimental animals". Heath also experimented with the drugbulbocapnine to induce stupor, using prisoners in the Louisiana State Penitentiary as experimental subjects. He later worked on schizophrenia, which he regarded as an illness with a physical basis.
Heath, R.G. (1961) Reappraisal of biological aspects of psychiatry. Journal of Neuropsychiatry 3: 1-11.
In Memoriam: Robert Galbraith Heath, MD, DMSci (1915–1999). Neurology 54(2): 286.
Heath, R.G. (1963) Electrical self-stimulation of the brain in man. American Journal of Psychiatry 120: 571-577.
Moan, C.E., & Heath, R.G. (1972) Septal stimulation for the initiation of heterosexual activity in a homosexual male. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 3: 23-30.
http://www.wireheading.com/robert-heath.html Robert Heath at Wireheading
Slattery, J.P. (1990) Report of the Royal Commission into Deep Sleep Therapy. New South Wales Parliamentary Paper 304/1990-1991 ISBN 0724087664
Scheflin, A.W. & Opton, E.M. (1978) The Mind Manipulators: a non-fiction account. (Paddington Press: New York) ISBN 0448229773 pp. 314-315.
Heath, R.G. (1967) Schizophrenia: pathogenetic theories. International Journal of Psychiatry 3(5): 407-10.
style="font-size:85%;">id="mjxh">1953:style="font-family: tahoma;">John Lilly, of the National Institute of Mental Health, discovers that he can simulate a variety of emotions by placing electrodes inside a monkey’s brain. (A male monkey, for example, when given a switch to prompt orgasm, pushes the button approximately every three minutes.) Lilly's work draws theCIA’s attention and is later described in John Marks's The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control (1979) and George Andrews's MKULTRA: The CIA's Top Secret Program in Human Experimentation and Behavior Modification (2001). [The Atlantic]
John C. Lilly; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, psychoanalyst and writer. He was a pioneer researcher into the nature of consciousness using as his principal tools the isolation tank, dolphin communication and psychedelic drugs, sometimes in combination. Lilly was a qualified physician and psychoanalyst. He made contributions in the fields of biophysics, neurophysiology, electronics, computer science, andneuroanatomy. He invented and promoted the use of the isolation tank as a means of sensory deprivation. He was also a pioneer in attempting interspecies communication between humans and dolphins. After the war he trained in psychoanalysis and at the University of Pennsylvania where he began researching the physical structures of the brain and of its consciousness. In 1951 he published a paper showing how he could display patterns of brain electrical activity on a cathode ray display screen using electrodes he specially devised for insertion into a living brain. In 1953, he took a post studying neurophysiology with the US Public Health Service Commissioned Officers Corps. In 1954, following the desire to strip away outside stimuli from the mind/brain, he devised the first isolation tank, a dark soundproof tank of warm salt water in which subjects could float for long periods in sensory isolation. Dr. Lilly himself and a research colleague were the first to act as subjects in this research. His quest next took him to ask questions about the minds of other large-brained mammals and in the late 1950s he established a centre devoted to fostering human-dolphin
communication; the Communication Research Institute on St. Thomas in
the Virgin Islands. In the early id="cdpr">1960s,
Dr. Lilly and co-workers published several papers reporting that
dolphins could mimic human speech patterns. Subsequent investigations
of dolphin cognition have generally, however, found it difficult to
replicate his results.
Exploration of human consciousness: In the early sixties he
was introduced to psychedelics like LSD and ketamine and began a series
of experiments in which he took the psychedelic in an isolation tank
and/or in the company of dolphins. These events are described in his
and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer: Theory and Experiments
Centre of the Cyclone, both published in
In the 1980s he led a project
which attempted to teach dolphins a computer-synthesised
the design for a future "communications laboratory" that would be a
floating living room where humans and dolphins could chat as equals and
where they would find a common language. He envisioned a time when all
killing of whales and dolphins would cease, "not from a law being
passed, but from each human understanding innately that these are
ancient, sentient earth residents, with tremendous intelligence and
enormous life force. Not someone to kill, but someone to learn from."
In the 1990s Lilly moved to the island of Maui in Hawaii, where he
lived most of the remainder of his life. His websitejohnclilly.com was
designed during this time by the New York based graphic artist, BigTwin
. His literary rights and scientific discoveries were housed within
Human Software, Inc., while his philanthropic endeavors were channelled
through the Human Dolphin Foundation. His legacy continues through the
John C. Lilly Research Institute, Inc.
Solid State Intelligence;
Solid State Intelligence is a malevolent entity described by John C.
Cultural references: Lilly's work,
particularly his development of the sensory deprivation tank, is
referenced explicitly or implicitly in numerous film, music and
television productions. Lilly's work inspired two films made without
his direct involvement,
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States, in 1980, in which scientists combining drugs and isolation
tanks see reality dangerously
in which the US Navy turns the animals into weapons,