Wednesday, 16 July 2008

Radio-controlled behavior

Intro - History

Implantation of multilead electrodeassemblies and radiostimulation of the brain in chimpanzees.ARL-TR-69-2.,
by Delgado JM. Tech Doc Rep ARL TDR. 1969 Mar;:1-19.
PMID: 4897582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Radio-controlled behavior.,
by Delgado JM.; N Y State J Med. 1969 Feb 1;69(3):413-7.; PMID: 4976614 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Conditioned suppression via subcortical radio stimulation in the chimpanzee. ARL-TR-69-1.,
by Delgado JM. Tech Doc Rep ARL TDR. 1969 Mar;:1-16.
PMID: 5810766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hidden Communication

Enhanced Human Intelligence / Conciousness
Intracerebral radio stimulation and recording in completely free patients.,
by Delgado JM, Mark V, Sweet W, Ervin F, Weiss G, Bach-Y-Rita G, Hagiwara R.; J Nerv Ment Dis. 1968 Oct;147(4):329-40.
PMID: 5683678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
"Hirnschrittmacher" zwischen Medizin und Missbrauch, Chips verbessert zwar mentale Leistungen, erfüllt aber auch manipulative Zwecke.
An der Kölner Klinik für Stereotaxie und Funktionelle Neurochirurgie arbeitet Prof. Volker Sturm schon lange an einer Lösung, das Gehirn wieder "in Topform" zu bringen. Sein Hirnschrittmacher gilt als Wunderwaffe bei Parkinson und soll auch bald bei psychischen Leiden eingesetzt werden. Der Neuroethiker Prof. Thomas Metzinger von der Universität Mainz vertritt dagegen die Ansicht, das könnte zum Missbrauch und dem Abbau von Persönlichkeitsrechten führen.... Doch für Neuroethiker Metzinger besteht das Problem darin, dass alles, was entdeckt wird, auch gegen Menschen eingesetzt wird. Er appelliert daran, sich mit der Technik soweit auseinander zu setzen, dass die Menschheit davon nur profitiert. Damit die Beeinflussung des Gehirns ein Profit bleibt, brauchen wir also dringend verantwortungsvolle Mediziner und Neuroethiker, die dabei helfen, das Machbare vom Notwendigen zu unterscheiden.
Recalibration of Audiovisual Synchrony: What is changing?
by Machulla, T., M. Di Luca and M. Ernst; Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen (TeaP). Marburg (03 2008), Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

Abstract: Both physical and physiological transmission times can differ between audition and vision. Under certain conditions, the brain reduces perceived asynchrony by adapting to this temporal discrepancy. In two experiments we investigated whether this recalibration is specific to auditory and visual stimuli, or whether other modality combinations (audiotactile, visuotactile) are affected, as well. We presented asynchronous audiovisual signals, with either auditory leading or visual leading. Then, using temporal order judgments we measured observers’ point of subjective simultaneity for three modality combinations. Results indicate an adjustment of perceived simultaneity for the audiovisual and the visuotactile modality pairs. We conclude that audiovisual adaptation is the result of a change of processing latencies of visual events. In a second experiment, we corroborate this finding. We demonstrate that reaction times to visual signals, but not to tactile or auditory signals, change as a result of audiovisual recalibration.
Human Assisted Neural Devices RFI, SN07-43, Responses Due 4 P.M. ET, August 15, 2007, POC: Dr. Geoffrey Ling, DARPA/DSO;
The Human Assisted Neural Devices (HAND) program at DARPA has provided the basis for a number of assistive devices controlled, in part, by neural signals provided by the user. There is continued interest in discovering the underlying processing structures the brain uses to perform tasks, with the eventual goal of leveraging these processes with algorithms and models that can control external assistive devices.
AugCog Body-mounted sensors monitor brain and heart activity to prevent information overload and keep soldiers out of harm’s way.
To help keep U.S. troops safer by improving the information processing capability and battlefield performance of military units operating in stressful environments, Honeywell is developing technology for the U.S. Army’s Augmented Cognition (AugCog) program. AugCog technology identifies soldiers facing information overload and prompts real-time tactical changes by allowing commanders to redirect that information and any required action to other soldiers. The portable system uses body-mounted electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) sensors to monitor cognitive activity in the brain and blood flow in the body. Brain pattern and heart rate data from system-equipped soldiers will be transmitted wirelessly to commanders in real-time to improve overall battlefield information management and decision-making. “In the future, technology advances will force networked soldiers to have greater information processing responsibilities than ever before,” said Bob Smith, Vice President, Advanced Technology, Honeywell Aerospace. “We are developing our augmented cognition technology to help soldiers and commanders manage the increasing barrage of data that exists on the net-centric battlefield. AugCog is going to help keep Americans safer during demanding combat missions.” Honeywell has already developed a prototype AugCog helmet that monitors various brain states including those associated with distraction, fatigue and information overload. The system then uses that data to produce a visual readout for combat commanders showing the cognitive patterns of individual Soldiers. “This technology is going to allow commanders to redeploy soldiers who are in not in the right physical or mental state to carry out a mission,” said Smith. “Commanders will be able to identify fatigued or overstressed soldiers operating in highly intense combat situations and replace them with others who are more mission ready.” For more information on Honeywell’s Augmented Cognition technologies, visit:
Honeywell Technology to Help U.S. Military Rapidly Analyze Intelligence and Keep Troops Out of Harm's Way
PHOENIX, Nov. 15, 2007 -- Honeywell (NYSE: HON) announced today that it is developing a revolutionary system for the Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) that could dramatically improve the military’s intelligence analyzing capabilities by allowing analysts to evaluate images from satellites, ground cameras and surveillance aircraft more precisely and quickly than ever before. The Honeywell Image Triage System (HITS) will enable Department of Defense (DoD) personnel to analyze intelligence images up to six times faster than the current computer-based system through the use of high-tech sensors that monitor signals in the human brain. Honeywell is developing the system as part of DARPA’s Neurotechnology for Intelligence Analysts (NIA) program. “Computer-based systems currently in use cannot process enormous volumes of intelligence imagery fast enough to meet the needs the military,” said Bob Smith, Vice President, Advanced Technology, Honeywell Aerospace. “That’s why we are developing technology that speeds up the intelligence analysis process by tapping into brain signals associated with split-second visual judgments. As a result, we are going to give analysts the ability to identify dangerous threats to our troops more quickly, precisely and effectively than ever before.” The human brain is capable of responding to visually salient objects significantly faster than an individual’s visual-motor, transformation-based response. Simply put, when examining an image an analyst’s brain can register a discovery long before the analyst becomes fully aware of it. Honeywell’s technology uses sensors to monitor brain activity in real time, automatically identifying and recording brain signals to tag intelligence images worthy of additional review. The system presents data to analysts in high speed bursts of 10 to 20 images per second. Head-mounted electroencephalogram (EEG) sensors detect neural signals associated with target recognition as the images are viewed. Neural signals known as “event related potentials” are used to tag the images that contain likely targets or threats. At the end of the high-speed scan, the analysts are able to focus on the small subset of key images tagged by the brain scan instead of searching slowly and systematically through every inch of high resolution satellite images like current techniques require. Honeywell’s triage analysis methods will ultimately apply to a diverse range of imagery, including high resolution electro-optical, infrared and video imagery. It could eventually be used in a broad range of military and commercial applications including medical diagnosis and geospatial analysis. “HITS is going to help the military to analyze more intelligence imagery everyday. By more quickly identifying threats to our troops, Honeywell is helping the U.S. military keep them out of harm’s way,” Smith said.

Autistic savant
Most autistic savants have extensive mental abilities called splinter skills. However, it is important to notice that people with a high general intelligence can demonstrate the same skills; savant disabilities are not necessary for these skills. They can recall facts, numbers, license plates, maps, and extensive lists of sports and weather statistics after being exposed to them only once. Some savants can mentally note and then recall perfectly a very long sequence of music, numbers, or speech. Some, dubbed mental calculators, can do exceptionally fast arithmetic, including prime factorization. Other skills include precisely estimating distances and angles by sight, calculating the day of the week for any given date over the span of tens of thousands of years, and being able to accurately gauge the passing of time without a clock. Most autistic savants have a single special skill while others have multiple skills. Usually these abilities are concrete, non-symbolic, right hemisphere skills as opposed to left hemisphere skills that tend to be more sequential, logical, and symbolic. Why autistic savants are capable of these astonishing feats is not quite clear. Some savants have obvious neurological abnormalities (such as the lack of corpus callosum in Kim Peek's non-autistic brain). Many savants are known to have abnormalities in the left hemisphere of the brain. There are only about 50–100 recognized prodigious savants in the world.
Famous autistic savants: Alonzo Clemons, American clay sculptor.; Tony DeBlois, blind American musician.; Leslie Lemke, blind American musician.; Jonathan Lerman, American artist.; Thristan Mendoza, Filipino marimba prodigy.; Derek Paravicini, blind British musician.; Kim Peek, basis for the 1988 fictional film Rain Man, although diagnosis has changed.; James Henry Pullen, gifted British carpenter.; Matt Savage, U.S. autistic jazz prodigy.; Henriett Seth-F., Hungarian autistic savant, poet, writer and artist.; Daniel Tammet, British autistic savant.; Stephen Wiltshire, British architectural artist.; Richard Wawro, Scottish artist.;jsessionid=C0D23DAD8843949106A42EB059E2BF15

Behavioural improvements with thalamic stimulation after severe traumatic brain injury

by N. D. Schiff, J. T. Giacino, K. Kalmar, J. D. Victor, K. Baker, M. Gerber, B. Fritz, B. Eisenberg, J. O'Connor, E. J. Kobylarz, S. Farris, A. Machado, C. McCagg, F. Plum, J. J. Fins & A. R. Rezai; Nature 448, 600-603 (2 August 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06041;

Abstract: Widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is assumed to underlie the failure of brain mechanisms that support communication and goal-directed behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury. Disorders of consciousness that persist for longer than 12 months after severe traumatic brain injury are generally considered to be immutable; no treatment has been shown to accelerate recovery or improve functional outcome in such cases. Recent studies have shown unexpected preservation of large-scale cerebral networks in patients in the minimally conscious state (MCS), a condition that is characterized by intermittent evidence of awareness of self or the environment. These findings indicate that there might be residual functional capacity in some patients that could be supported by therapeutic interventions. We hypothesize that further recovery in some patients in the MCS is limited by chronic underactivation of potentially recruitable large-scale networks. Here, in a 6-month double-blind alternating crossover study, we show that bilateral deep brain electrical stimulation (DBS) of the central thalamus modulates behavioural responsiveness in a patient who remained in MCS for 6 yr following traumatic brain injury before the intervention. The frequency of specific cognitively mediated behaviours (primary outcome measures) and functional limb control and oral feeding (secondary outcome measures) increased during periods in which DBS was on as compared with periods in which it was off. Logistic regression modelling shows a statistical linkage between the observed functional improvements and recent stimulation history. We interpret the DBS effects as compensating for a loss of arousal regulation that is normally controlled by the frontal lobe in the intact brain. These findings provide evidence that DBS can promote significant late functional recovery from severe traumatic brain injury. Our observations, years after the injury occurred, challenge the existing practice of early treatment discontinuation for patients with only inconsistent interactive behaviours and motivate further research to develop therapeutic interventions.

Sensors, Sensory Adaptation

Cross-modal plasticity: where and how?

Daphne Bavelier & Helen J. Neville; Nature Reviews Neuroscience Jun. 2002 Vol. 3, 443-452 | doi:10.1038/nrn848

Abstract: Animal studies have shown that sensory deprivation in one modality can have striking effects on the development of the remaining modalities. Although recent studies of deaf and blind humans have also provided convincing behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence of increased capabilities and altered organization of spared modalities, there is still much debate about the identity of the brain systems that are changed and the mechanisms that mediate these changes. Plastic changes across brain systems and related behaviours vary as a function of the timing and the nature of changes in experience. This specificity must be understood in the context of differences in the maturation rates and timing of the associated critical periods, differences in patterns of transiently existing connections, and differences in molecular factors across brain systems.

What blindness can tell us about seeing again: merging neuroplasticity and neuroprostheses

by Lotfi B. Merabet, Joseph F. Rizzo, Amir Amedi, David C. Somers & Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6, 71-77 (January 2005) | doi:10.1038/nrn1586

Abstract: Significant progress has been made in the development of visual neuroprostheses to restore vision in blind individuals. Appropriate delivery of electrical stimulation to intact visual structures can evoke patterned sensations of light in those who have been blind for many years. However, success in developing functional visual prostheses requires an understanding of how to communicate effectively with the visually deprived brain in order to merge what is perceived visually with what is generated electrically.

Neuroprosthetics: In search of the sixth sense

by Alison Abbott Nature 442, 125-127 (13 July 2006) | doi:10.1038/442125a; Published online 12 July 2006

Abstract: Implants in the brain could one day help paralysed people move robotic arms and legs. But first, scientists need to work out how our brains know where our limbs are, says Alison Abbott.

Neuroscience: An extra dimension to olfaction

by John Ngai; Nature 442, 637-638 (10 August 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature05001;

Abstract: The sense of smell is triggered by receptors in the olfactory epithelium that lines the nose. In mice at least, that lining is also responsible for receiving chemosensory cues involved in mating and other social behaviours. In 1991, Linda Buck and Richard Axel reported the seminal discovery of the gene family that encodes odorant receptors in vertebrates. A paper by Buck and Stephen Liberles on page 645 of this issue describes a second class of chemosensory receptor expressed by olfactory sensory neurons.


Implant boosts activity in injured brain

by Michael Hopkin; Nature No: 448, pp. 522 (2 August 2007) | doi:10.1038/448522a;

Abstract: Deep-brain stimulation offers hope for minimally conscious patients. Brain function has been improved in a patient who was in a minimally conscious state, by electrically stimulating a specific brain region with implanted electrodes. The achievement raises questions about the treatment of other patients who have been in this condition for years, the researchers say.
Cognitive Technology Threat Warning System, SN07-20, Posted Date: February 15, 2007
The objective of the DARPA CT2WS program is to drive a breakthrough in soldier-portable visual threat warning devices. Recent developments and discoveries in the disparate technology areas of flat field wide angle optics, large pixel count digital imagers, cognitive visual processing algorithms, neurally-based target detection signatures and ultra-low power analog-digital hybrid signal processing electronics have led DARPA to believe that focused technology development, system design, and system integration efforts may produce revolutionary capabilities for the warfighter.
Resonator system with a plurality of individual mechanically coupled resonators and method of making same

Electro-larynx: Patent # 7,312,674 Date Issued: December 25, 2007

A resonator system wherein a plurality of resonators each including piezoelectric material are suspended relative to a substrate. An edge of each resonator is mechanically coupled to an edge of another resonator and the plurality of resonators expand and contract reaching resonance in response to an applied electric field.
Honeywell Tests Brain-Wave System, By Andy Pasztor, As of Tuesday, November 13, 2007, wall Street Journal
Honeywell International Inc., seeking to speed up how fast humans can analyze intelligence data such as aerial photographs, is testing a system that monitors analysts' brains for early signs of electrical activity when they see something interesting. With funding from the Defense Department, the three-year-old project instantaneously keys on certain faint neural signals -- before analysts themselves can consciously react to them -- as a way to identify and flag images worthy of further assessment. Supported by the Defense Advanced ...

Natural Human echolocation; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Human echolocation is the ability of humans to sense objects in their environment by hearing echos off those objects. This ability is used by some blind people to navigate within their environment. They actively create sounds, such as by tapping their canes or by making clicking noises with their mouths. Human echolocation is similar in principle to active sonar and to the animal echolocation employed by some animals, including bats and dolphins. - 10k - In cache Google.

JAMES HOLMAN (1786-1857), known as the "Blind Traveller," was born at Exeter on the 15th of October 1786. He entered the British navy in 1798 as first-class ...

Daniel Kish; Dan Kish using and explaining Echolocation

Science: The state of the universe. The Mystery of Sonar BoyBats use echolocation. Can people use it, too?,
By Daniel Engber, Posted Friday, Dec. 1, 2006,

In early September, a 14-year-old kid with empty eye sockets strode on stage for a taping of the talk show Ellen. "I'm not blind," he told the host to wild applause, "I just can't see." The story seemed lifted from the pages of a comic book: At the age of 3, Ben Underwood lost his eyes to retinal cancer. Three years later, he discovered that he could sense objects around him by making little clicking noises with his tongue and then listening for the echoes. Now, he uses these clicks to find doorways and locate cars on the street. That's right—he navigates with sonar.Ben Underwood many videos on

First empirical study demonstrating that populations of nerve cells adapt to changing images

by Robert Cahill, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston 12-Mar-2008
HOUSTON - (MARCH 12, 2008) - Neuroscientists studying the mind’s ability to process images have completed the first empirical study to demonstrate, using animal models, how populations of nerve cells in visual cortex adapt to changing images. Their findings could lead to sight-improving therapies for people following trauma or stroke. The study at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston appears in the March 13 issue of the journal Nature. “Our perception of the environment relies on the capacity of neural networks to adapt rapidly to changes in incoming stimuli,” wrote senior author Valentin Dragoi, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurobiology and anatomy at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston. “It is increasingly being realized that the neural code is adaptive, that is, sensory neurons change their responses and selectivity in a dynamic manner to match the changes in input stimuli.” The neural code is the set of rules that transforms electrical impulses in the brain into thoughts, memories and decisions.

Eyes on prize: Visionary device gives hope 20-year high-tech project aims to restore sight, boost quality of life

by Eva Wolchover, Boston Herald, March 9, 2008

A bionic device the size of a pencil eraser - the labor of 20 years for a group of visionary Hub doctors and scientists - is offering hope that some forms of blindness could be alleviated within a few years. The Boston Retinal Implant Project, partially based at the V.A. Medical Center in Jamaica Plain, is one of 22 programs around the world working to restore vision to the degenerative blind. Their work: a bio-electronic implant that delivers images to the brain via a connector the width of a human hair.

“There has been this explosion of interest in this field because basically the technology in the last 20 years has become miniaturized enough and sophisticated enough so that for the first time we can imagine building something small enough to put in the eye,” said Dr. Joseph Rizzo III, who founded the project in the late 1980s and co-directs the 36-member team.


Rapid learning and flexible memory in “habit” tasks in rats trained with brain stimulation reward.

Hermer-Vazquez LL, Hermer-Vazquez RW, Rybinnik I, Greebel G, Keller R, Xu S, Chapin JK. (2005) Physiol Behav. 84(5):753-759

Boosting slow oscillations during sleep potentiates memory;

by Lisa Marshall, Halla Helgadóttir, Matthias Mölle and Jan Born; Nature 444, 610-613 (30 November 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature05278;

Abstract: There is compelling evidence that sleep contributes to the long-term consolidation of new memories. This function of sleep has been linked to slow (<1 Hz) potential oscillations, which predominantly arise from the prefrontal neocortex and characterize slow wave sleep. However, oscillations in brain potentials are commonly considered to be mere epiphenomena that reflect synchronized activity arising from neuronal networks, which links the membrane and synaptic processes of these neurons in time. Whether brain potentials and their extracellular equivalent have any physiological meaning per se is unclear, but can easily be investigated by inducing the extracellular oscillating potential fields of interest. Here we show that inducing slow oscillation-like potential fields by transcranial application of oscillating potentials (0.75 Hz) during early nocturnal non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, that is, a period of emerging slow wave sleep, enhances the retention of hippocampus-dependent declarative memories in healthy humans. The slowly oscillating potential stimulation induced an immediate increase in slow wave sleep, endogenous cortical slow oscillations and slow spindle activity in the frontal cortex. Brain stimulation with oscillations at 5 Hz—another frequency band that normally predominates during rapid-eye-movement sleep—decreased slow oscillations and left declarative memory unchanged. Our findings indicate that endogenous slow potential oscillations have a causal role in the sleep-associated consolidation of memory, and that this role is enhanced by field effects in cortical extracellular space.

Of sleep, memories and trauma.;

by Robert Stickgold;

Nature Neuroscience 10, 540 - 542 (2007); doi:10.1038/nn0507-540

Contrary to the synaptic homeostasis theory, new work finds that reactivating memories during slow-wave sleep enhances learning and hippocampal activation. This may be useful for treating post-traumatic stress disorder.

Prefrontal Regions Orchestrate Suppression of Emotional Memories via a Two-Phase Process.,

by Brendan E. Depue, Tim Curran, Marie T. Banich; Science 13 July 2007: Vol. 317. no. 5835, pp. 215 - 219; DOI: 10.1126/science.1139560

Abstract: Whether memories can be suppressed has been a controversial issue in psychology and cognitive neuroscience for decades. We found evidence that emotional memories are suppressed via two time-differentiated neural mechanisms: (i) an initial suppression by the right inferior frontal gyrus over regions supporting sensory components of the memory representation (visual cortex, thalamus), followed by (ii) right medial frontal gyrus control over regions supporting multimodal and emotional components of the memory representation (hippocampus, amygdala), both of which are influenced by fronto-polar regions. These results indicate that memory suppression does occur and, at least in nonpsychiatric populations, is under the control of prefrontal regions.

Early sleep triggers memory for early visual discrimination skills.

by Steffen Gais, Werner Plihal, Ullrich Wagner & Jan Born;

Abstract: Improvement after practicing visual texture discrimination does not occur until several hours after practice has ended. We show that this improvement strongly depends on sleep. To specify the process responsible for sleep-related improvement, we compared the effects of 'early' and 'late' sleep, dominated respectively by slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Discrimination skills significantly improved over early sleep, improved even more over a whole night's sleep, but did not improve after late sleep alone. These findings suggest that procedural memory formation is prompted by slow-wave sleep-related processes. Late REM sleep may promote memory formation at a second stage, only after periods of early sleep have occurred.

This is the true story of scientific child prodigy, and former baby genius, Ainan Celeste Cawley, written by his father.

Can the child prodigy work out if he should go to university aged 7?, Ainan Celeste Cawley, the son of a British father and a Singaporean mother,
by Alexandra Frean, The Times, November 10, 2007.
The parents of a seven-year-old science prodigy have begun a world-wide search for a university place for their child, with the warning that “a great mind could be lost” if he is not offered the chance to pursue his studies at degree level. Ainan Celeste Cawley, the son of a British father and a Singaporean mother, passed his O-level chemistry in Singapore at the age of 6 and is studying for an A level in the same subject.

Neural encoding of individual words and faces by the human hippocampus and amygdala

Gary Heit*§, Michael E. Smith†¶ & Eric Halgren*‡parallel¶£ Nature 333, 773 - 775 (23 June 1988); doi:10.1038/333773a0

Patients with lesions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) of the brain, which includes the hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, are severely impaired in their ability to remember and recognize words or faces which they saw only a short time ago1,2. These lesions also prevent the effect of word repetition on cortical event-related potentials that are associated with these tasks3. We have been able to study the response of individual neurons in the human medial temporal lobe to such delayed recognition tasks in epileptic patients undergoing neurosurgery. We found that some MTL neurons preferentially fired on sight of one particular word from a set of ten words used in a memory task, and others fired in response to one particular face. This stimulus-specific firing was maximal during the time that the neocortical event potentials are most sensitive to stimulus repetition, suggesting that the MTL contributes specific information to the cortex during the retrieval of recent memories4,5.

Reversible neural inactivation reveals hippocampal participation in several memory processes
by G. Riedel, J. Micheau, A.G.M. Lam, E.v.L. Roloff, S.J. Martin, H. Bridge, L. de Hoz, B. Poeschel, J. McCulloch & R.G.M. Moris
Nature Neuroscience 2, 898 - 905 (1999) doi:10.1038/13202
Studies of patients and animals with brain lesions have implicated the hippocampal formation in spatial, declarative/relational and episodic types of memory. These and other types of memory consist of a series of interdependent but potentially dissociable memory processes—encoding, storage, consolidation and retrieval. To identify whether hippocampal activity contributes to these processes independently, we used a novel method of inactivating synaptic transmission using a water-soluble antagonist of AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors. Once calibrated using electrophysiological and two-deoxyglucose techniques in vivo, drug or vehicle was infused chronically or acutely into the dorsal hippocampus of rats at appropriate times during or after training in a water maze. Our findings indicate that hippocampal neural activity is necessary for both encoding and retrieval of spatial memory and for either trace consolidation or long-term storage.

Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory

J. Christopher Repa, Jeff Muller, John Apergis, Theresa M. Desrochers, Yu Zhou & Joseph E. LeDoux
Nature Neuroscience 4, 724 - 731 (2001) doi:10.1038/89512

Single-cell activity was recorded in the dorsal subnucleus of the lateral amygdala (LAd) of freely behaving rats during Pavlovian fear conditioning, to determine the relationship between neuronal activity and behavioral learning. Neuronal responses elicited by the conditioned stimulus typically increased before behavioral fear was evident, supporting the hypothesis that neural changes in LAd account for the conditioning of behavior. Furthermore, two types of these rapidly modified cells were found. Some, located in the dorsal tip of LAd, exhibited short-latency responses (<20 ms) that were only transiently changed. A second class of cells, most commonly found in ventral regions of LAd, had longer latency responses, but maintained enhanced responding throughout training and even through extinction. These anatomically distinct cells in LAd may be differentially involved in the initiation of learning and long-term memory storage.


Aggressive behavior evoked by radio stimulation in monkey colonies.,
by Delgado JM.; Am Zool. 1966 Nov;6(4):669-81.; PMID: 4962776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys.,
by Delgado JM.; J Nerv Ment Dis. 1967 May;144(5):383-90.; PMID: 4962338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Aggression and defense under cerebral radio control.,
by Delgado JM.; UCLA Forum Med Sci. 1967;7:171-93.; PMID: 4972332 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neurobiology of aggressive behavior.,
by Delgado JM.; Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1976 Oct 30;52(18 Suppl):1-19.
Causality, neurological mechanisms, and behavioral manifestations may be heterogeneous in different forms of aggressive behavior, but some elements are shared by all forms of violence, including the necessity of sensory inputs, the coding and decoding of information according to acquired frames of reference, and the activation of pre-established patterns of response. Understanding and prevention of violence requires a simultaneous study of its social, cultural, and economic aspects, at parity with an investigation of its neurological mechanisms. Part of the latter information may be obtained through animal experimentation, preferably in non-human primates. Feline predatory behavior has no equivalent in man, and therefore its hypothalamic representation probably does not exist in the human brain. Codes of information, frames of reference for sensory perception, axis to evaluate threats, and formulas for aggressive performance are not established genetically but must be learned individually. We are born with the capacity to learn aggressive behavior, but not with established patterns of violence. Mechanisms for fighting which are acquired by individual experience may be triggered in a similar way by sensory cues, volition, and by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral areas. In monkeys, aggressive responses may be modified by changing the hierarchical position of the stimulated animal, indicating the physiological quality of the neurological mechanisms electrically activated.
PMID: 193531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Inter-response time distribution as a function of differential reinforcement of temporally spaced responses.
KELLEHER RT, FRY W, COOK L., J Exp Anal Behav. 1959 Apr;2:91-106.
How do rats develop such remarkable precision in spacing their responses along a temporal continuum? Our results, as well as those of Anger (1956), indicate that rats can time intervals of 20 seconds or longer with fair accuracy by some means other than a chain of overt responses. PMID: 13853360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Some effects of brain stimulation on timing behavior.

Mind Control: Chipping People

Microchip Implant Technology for Enhanced Security:
Microchip implant (human)
A human Microchip Implant is an integrated circuit device or RFID tag encased in silicate glass and implanted into a human's body. Such implants can be used for information storage, including personal identification, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information.
Feds approve human RFID implants, Solution desperately seeking a problem
by Thomas C Greene, The Register, Published Thursday 14th October 2004
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a gimmick from Florida-based Applied Digital Solutions to chip people with RFID implants - previously confined to tracking animals - thereby making it easy to access their medical records, even when they cannot, or would rather not, cooperate.
Topik: HIV/AIDS Kliping: Papua considers 'chipping' people with HIV/AIDS
by Nethy Dharma Somba, The Jakarta Post, Jayapura, July 24, 2007, Dipublikasi pada Thursday, 26 July 2007 oleh Djumiran.
The Papua Legislative Council is deliberating a regulation that would see microchips implanted in people living with HIV/AIDS so authorities could monitor their actions. According to Article 35 of the regulation on healthcare in the province, to supervise and control people with HIV/AIDS a "detection device is needed to monitor the movements and sexual activities of people with HIV/AIDS". The article has been condemned by activists and government officials in the province as a gross violation of rights. Dr. John Manansang, a member of the working group deliberating the regulation, told reporters in Jayapura that if the regulation was approved by the council in its present form, the article on microchips would be implemented. He said the microchips would be implanted in people with HIV/AIDS who engaged in high-risk behavior, such as unprotected sex or the sharing of needles. He said this was necessary to monitor the movements and activities of these people. "It will only be imposed on people with HIV/AIDS who practice high-risk behaviors. Implanting the microchips is expected to check the number of people infected by the deadly virus in Papua." Manansang said the spread of HIV/AIDS in Papua had reached a point where it "threatened the existence of the Papuan people", making it necessary that authorities introduce new policies to deal with the disease. "Now nearly 24 percent of the Papuan population has been infected with HIV/AIDS. It's time to try a different policy ...," he said.
'Let's track paedos with chip implants' - top cop fails tech test
Shall we just believe in witchcraft while we're about it?
by John Lettice, The Register, Published Sunday 16th July 2006
Britain's most senior policeman has, according to a Sunday Times report, suggested that surgically implanted chips could be used in order to track the movements of paedophiles and dangerous sex offenders. "If we are prepared to track cars, why don’t we track people? You could put surgical chips into those of the most dangerous sex offenders who are are willing to be controlled," said Ken Jones, president of the Association of Chief Police Officers.
Hands On,,
by Amal Graafstra, IEEE Spectrum, First Published March 2007
My life as an RFID guinea pig started in early 2005. I considered biometric authorization,but I found biometrics to be neither cheap nor reliable, so I turned my attention to RFID. I didn't care about communications standards—I wanted to make sure the glass tag could be safely put into / from my hand. Since the initial days of my first implant over two years ago, the number of do-it-yourself RFID taggers has grown to include hundreds of people worldwide. While I may want to upgrade one of my implants one day, for now I'm happy to just observe how others develop this trend.
Belgians implant RFID chip in tooth, Absolutely dental,
by Jan Libbenga, The Register, Published Monday 20th March 2006
Belgian scientists at the Catholic University of Leuven have embedded an RFID chip into a tooth to show how detailed personal information can be stored. Patrick Thevissen and his team adapted a tag which vets already implant into animals. If you lose your chipped dog, vets can retrieve the pet's home address from the device.

Intelligence Uses of Mind Control (HUMINT)

Intelligence Use of Mind Control in HUMINT

Secret Communications

United States Patent 4,858,612
Hearing device
Abstract: A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the
auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed
and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are
then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative
of the original sound received by the microphone.
Inventors: Stocklin; Philip L.
Filed: December 19, 1983 / August 22, 1989


United States Patent 1,536,109
Hearing device for partially deaf persons
May 5, 1925
Henry L. Lessard

Hearing device for the deaf
Nov. 26, 1929
F.E. Miller


United States Patent 1,824,427; 1,884,638
Hearing device
Sept 22. 1931; Oct 25 1932
C. Fensky

United States Patent 2,127,468 (first models of small hearing aid)
Bone conducting hearing device
Filed: Nov 11, 1933 / Aug 16, 1938
Emil Henry Greibach

United States Patent 2,239,550 (first models of small hearing aid)
Bone conducting hearing device
Joseph R. Cubert
Apr 22, 1941


United States Patent 3,621,150
Abstract: By utilizing the speech processor of the invention, the speech of a diver in a helium-oxygen atmosphere is made intelligible, or a normal recording played at higher speeds is made intelligible thereby providing a speed hearing capability, or a voice signal is compressed for transmission over low bandwidth communication lines. The invention makes use of the fact that normal speech may be chopped or segmented at certain rates and still retain its intelligibility. The basic principle of the invention is accomplished in either an electronic or electromechanical embodiment wherein the following steps are performed. The speech to be processed is segmented into very small and, in some applications, equal pieces. Every other piece is discarded and the remaining pieces are recombined. The recombined pieces are played back at a slower speed dependent on the length of the discarded pieces.
Inventors: George W. Pappas, Lyndeborough
Assignee: Sanders Associates (Inc., Nashua)
Filed: September 17, 1969 / November 16, 1971

United States Patent 3,989,904
Method and apparatus for setting an aural prosthesis to provide specific auditory deficiency corrections
Abstract: Apparatus for setting or adjusting an aural prosthesis, such as a hearing aid, in order to provide compensatory amplification or attenuation for aurally handicapped persons such that the prosthesis compensates for the specific auditory deficiencies of that person. The apparatus includes a master hearing aid having one or more adjustable gain controls for determining the person's preferred word discrimination levels for a plurality of frequency bands. As the master hearing aid is set at the person's preferred level for each separate band, a reciprocal control coupled to each master control is adjusted at the same time. A hearing aid is then selected having an acuity deficiency correction characteristic generally similar to that determined by the previous test information, and that hearing aid is coupled to the reciprocal gain controls. The hearing aid selected is of a type which may have one or more adjustable filter networks and a maximum power output adjustment or any combination of one or more of these. Whatever adjustable controls the hearing aid may have for its filters or for maximum power output are then adjusted by reference to the reciprocal gain values so that the audio response curve of the hearing aid closely approximates that of the master hearing aid.
Inventors: Rohrer; John S., Blackledge; Vernon O.
Assignee: Holmes; John L. (Scottsdale, AZ)
Filed: December 30, 1974 / November 2, 1976


United States Patent 3,828,142
Abstract: An electrical hearing aid is operated by the current of a current source provided in the casing of the hearing aid in a holder movable therein to exchange the source. The operating current is switched on and off by the movement of the holder and the closing or opening of contacts. An element effective between the holder and the casing snaps in rest locations in the switched on and switched off positions of the holder. The invention is particularly characterized by the provision of a closing device located between the holder and the casing and movable in and out to limit the movement of the holder at most to the switching operation and at least to an opening which just about prevents the removal of the battery.
Inventors: Buttner; Gerhard
Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (Erlangen, DT)
Filed: April 18, 1973 / August 6, 1974


United States Patent 3,882,285
Implantable hearing aid and method of improving hearing
Abstract: A self-contained hearing device made of components compatible with the human body is provided which is implanted in a hollowed-out portion of the skull adjacent the ear canal. A microphone port is connected with the ear canal for receiving sound that enters the ear and transforming it to energies which are transmitted by a direct connection to theossicular chain or to other mechanical movable portions of the middle ear. A method of improving hearing is provided wherein a parallel hearing path is provided to augment the normal hearing path.
Inventors: Nunley; James A. , Agnew; Jeremy A.
Assignee: The Vicon Instrument Company (Colorado Springs, CO)
Filed: October 9, 1973 / May 6, 1975

United States Patent 4,063,048
Implantable electronic hearing aid
Abstract: An electronic hearing aid device for enabling persons having loss of hearing due to a nonfunctioning inner ear (Cochlea), but have a responsive auditory (acoustic, or eighth cranial) nerve, to hear by way of an electronic device including a microphone for receiving audio signals connected to an amplifier for converting the audio signal into an analog voltage signal. The analog voltage signal is filtered by a series of filter networks which separate the analog voltage signal into a plurality of frequency component signals each having a predetermined frequency range within the audio spectrum. The component analog voltage signals are then converted into digital pulse signals having the same frequency as the component voltage signal which are fed to the auditory nerve by way of implantedplatinium (or other) wires wherein the digital pulse signals more accurately simulate the natural sound signals transmitted to the brain for interpretation.
Inventors: Kissiah, Jr.; Adam M.
Filed: March 16, 1977 / December 13, 1977

John C. Lilly; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the late 1950s he established a centre devoted to fostering human-dolphin communication; the Communication Research Institute on St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands. In the early 1960s, Dr. Lilly and co-workers published several papers reporting that dolphins could mimic human speech patterns. Subsequent investigations of dolphin cognition have generally, however, found it difficult to replicate his results. In the 1980s he led a project which attempted to teach dolphins a computer-synthesised language.

Subliminal message; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A subliminal message is a signal or message embedded in another object, designed to pass below the normal limits of perception. These messages are indiscernible by the conscious mind, but in certain situations can affect the subconscious or deeper mind and later actions or attitudes. Subliminal techniques have occasionally been used in advertising and propaganda; the purpose, the effectiveness, and the frequency of the application of such techniques is debated. The term subliminal stands for "beneath alimen"; a limen is a sensory threshold.

Patent # 3,393,279 dated 16 July 1968
In 1958, Dr Flanagan, then a child of 14 developed a radio transmitter that made the brain into a radio reciever. This device transmits acoustic information to the brain by means of radio waves into the skin, bypassing the 8th Crainial Nerve. When he applied for a patent on the device, the patent examiner rejected the whole thing saying that such a device would go against all known laws of science. Over the following years, Dr Flanagan fought againstinsurmontable odds to prove that the device did indeed work. In the meantime, LIFE magazine ran a major article on Flanagan and the Neurophone , naming him as one of the top ten scientists in the US at the age of 17! In a final desperate move Flanagan flew to the patent office with a model of his invention and successfully demonstrated the device on a deaf employee in the patent examiner's office. The deaf man heard music for the first time in 15 years and broke down into tears. The examiner declared that theNeurophone was indeed a basic patentable device and approved the patent for release.

José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado;

Much of Delgado's work was with an invention he called a stimoceiver, a radio which joined a stimulator of brain waves with a receiver which monitored E.E.G. waves and sent them back on separate radio channels. This allowed the subject of the experiment full freedom of movement while allowing the experimenter to control the experiment. Thestimoceiver could be used to stimulate emotions and control behavior. According to Delgado, "Radio Stimulation of different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation, colored visions, and other responses." Delgado stated that "brain transmitters can remain in a person's head for life.

Instrumentation, working hypotheses, and clinical aspects of neurostimulation., by Delgado JM., Appl Neurophysiol. 1977-1978;40(2-4):88-110.

The paper describes instrumentation developed in our laboratory for the therapy of neurological disorders, including

(a) hybrid stimulator for chronic use which retains constant current characteristics, providing a low resistance path during the quiescent phase between pulses to minimize thepostpulse charge;

(b) brain radio stimulators, crystal controlled, with digital logic section and an optoelectric sensor for telemetry of the intensity used;

(c) external stimoceiver for experimental and clinical use, combining multichannel stimulator and EEG telemetric instrument;

(d) transdermal stimoceivers, totally implantable for two-way communication with the brain through the intact skin; and

(e) implantable microprocessor for detection of EEG signals which are used to trigger contingent brain stimulation.

Our working hypotheses for chronic brain stimulation include

(a) electrical modification of the functional set point of specific cerebral areas;

(b) feedback-controlled stimulation; and

(c) establishment of artificial neuronal links with the aide of the computer.

The paper concludes with a discussion of the indications for therapeutic use of brain stimulation and criteria for patient selection.

PMID: 101139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

United States Patent



October 4, 1977

Hearing aid

Abstract: "Hearing" without involving the ear is realized by electrical conduction of the sound-representing signals on a carrier optimally in the frequency range of 15-60 kHz, from an electrode held against a person's head to the auditory cortex and possibly to the auditory nerve. This is here called a "cortical hearing aid". The ability of the person to recognize sounds with a cortical hearing aid is notably enhanced by introduction of significant distortion of the audio signals, especially low-order harmonics of the audio frequencies. The distortion acts as a substitute for distortion ordinarily occurring in the ear but disregarded in the hearing process.

Inventors: Schafer; Curtiss R. (Newtown, CT)
Assignee: Electro-Physical Research, Inc. (


March, 1973




April, 1973

Sidwell et al.



April, 1976


Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves


January, 1979


Method of using magnetic fields to conduct a screening diagnostic examination


December, 1985

Stoller et al.


Method and apparatus for detecting body illness, dysfunction, disease and/or pathology


July, 1986

Hoogendoorn et al.


Method and apparatus for contactless measurement of charge concentrations and potential differences in biological organisms


December, 1986

Kasa et al.


Apparatus for measuring the actual psychophysiological condition


August, 1987

Ko et al.


Non-invasive electromagnetic technique for monitoring bone healing and bone fracture localization


September, 1987



Non-invasive electromagnetic technique for monitoring physiological changes in the brain


October, 1987

Woodley et al.

Apparatus for locating and detecting pain


January, 1988



NMR imaging method and apparatus


September, 1989



Method and apparatus for detecting or measuring the presence of humans or biological organism


June, 1990

Alfano et al.


Method for detecting cancerous tissue using visible native luminescence


July, 1990

Taff et al.


Cryogenic remote sensing physiograph


August, 1990

Zanakis et al.


Biomagnetic analytical system using fiber-optic magnetic sensors


October, 1990

Nikias et al.


Non-invasive method and apparatus for describing the electrical activity of the surface of an interior organ


February, 1991

Merickel et al.

System and method for the noninvasive identification and display of breast lesions and the like


June, 1991

Morgan et al.


Low noise magnetoencephalogram system and method


March, 1992

Schurig et al.


Brain and nerve healing power apparatus and method


October, 1992

Hoenig et al.


Apparatus and method for measuring weak, location-dependent and time-dependent magnetic fields


February, 1993

Liboff et al.


Method and apparatus for the treatment of cancer


November, 1993



Apparatus and method for detecting cancer using nuclear magnetic resonance


May, 1994

Valdes Sosa et al.


Method and system for three dimensional tomography of activity and connectivity of brain and heart electromagnetic waves generators

Bone-anchored hearing aids (aka, Baha); vanderbilt University, Bill Wilkerson Center

Osseointegrated cochlear stimulator: People with impaired hearing often have difficulty coping with important aspects of everyday life. Air conduction hearing devices, such as most traditional hearing aids, provide a satisfactory solution for people with a specific type of hearing loss, but they are not always suitable for all types of hearing loss. For many people, direct bone conduction and theBaha system offers an alternative, and better, pathway for sound.The Baha system utilizes your body’s natural ability to conduct sound. Bone, like air, can conduct sound vibrations. For people with hearing loss, this provides another pathway to perceive sound. Typical hearing aids rely on air conduction and a functioning middle ear. In cases where the middle ear function may be blocked, damaged or occluded, theBaha system may be a better option as it bypasses the middle ear altogether. Instead, sound is sent around the damaged or problematic area, naturally stimulating the cochlea through bone conduction. Once the cochlea receives these sound vibrations, the organ ‘hears’ in the same manner as through air conduction; the sound is converted into neural signals and is transferred to the brain, allowing aBaha recipient to perceive sound.
Don roots out 'mindbenders'.,
by PATRICIA YOUNG, 25th January 1996, South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd Hong Kong.
AN academic has filed a US$100 million (HK$773 million) writ against the US Government claiming it secretly implanted a miniature device in his teeth to control his mind.

"The South China Morning Post reported on January 25 1996 that an assistant professor at the University of Science & Technology,Hong Kong, has filed a $100 million suit against the U.S. government for implanting mind-control devices in his teeth. Huang Si-ming charges that the devices were implanted during root canal work in 1991 while he was studying at the University of Iowa, according to Morning Post reported Patricia Young. Another student at Iowa University, who like Huang, was born in China, had gone on a shooting spree, and the Feds, Huang says, put the devices in his teeth to find out if he was involved. "TheHong Kong professor says he suffered an Alzheimer's disease-like memory loss that hampered his teaching. It stopped, he says, only when he sought legal aid to mount his lawsuit. Besides the U.S., the suit names the University of Science & Technology on the grounds that it was involved in continuing the mind-control work. It also seeks punitive damages of $1 million from the defendants for 'low ethical standards.' "Huang claims that one of the devices in his teeth can read his thoughts and talk to his mind when he's asleep. A second device, he believes, transmits pictures of what he sees to a receiver for recording. The mind controller, he says, can drive him to 'bad' behavior. He gives two examples, one of which cannot be mentioned in a family magazine."

United States Patent 4,858,612
Hearing device
Abstract: A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. Themultifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.
Inventors: Stocklin; Philip L.
Filed: December 19, 1983 / August 22, 1989

Implant technology is already commonplace in the form of replacement surgery (artificial joints, pacemakers, etc).

The Audio Tooth Implant (ATI) is the first commodity based in-body product. Augmenting our body’s communication skills it enables a form of telepathy. A micro-vibration device and a wireless low frequency receiver are implanted in the tooth during routine dental surgery. The tooth communicates with an array of digital devices, such as mobile telephones, radio and computers. A dedicated device (also acts as the long-range receiver) is used to fully customise the set up for each individuals personal requirements. Sound information is transferred from the tooth into the inner ear by bone transduction. Sound reception is totally discreet enabling information to be received anywhere at anytime.

  • Wired Excuse Me, Is Your Tooth Ringing? by Lakshmi Sandhana 06.21.02

  • Mobile phone in your tooth by Matthew posted on June 24, 2002 9:15 am

  • Time Magazine Transit & Talk PHONE TOOTH inventor: James Auger and jimmy Loizeau

  • BBC News Put your mobile where your mouth is thursday 20 June 2002


"Frey found that human subjects exposed to 1310 MHz and 2982 MHz microwaves at average power densities of 0.4 to 2 mW/cm2 perceived auditory sensations described as buzzing or knocking sounds. The sensation occurred instantaneously at average incident power densities well below that necessary for known biological damage and appeared to originate from within or near thebackof the head."
NASA Develops System To Computerize Silent, "Subvocal Speech"
by Michael Braukus, Headquarters, Washington, John Bluck , Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.; March 17, 2004; RELEASE : 04-093 NASA scientists have begun to computerize human, silent reading using nerve signals in the throat that control speech. In preliminary experiments, NASA scientists found that small, button-sized sensors, stuck under the chin and on either side of the "Adam's apple," could gather nerve signals, and send them to a processor and then to a computer program that translates them into words. Eventually, such "subvocal speech" systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, orsubauditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. "Biological signals arise when reading or speaking to oneself with or without actual lip or facial movement," Jorgensen explained. "A person using the subvocal system thinks of phrases and talks to himself so quietly, it cannot be heard, but the tongue and vocal chords do receive speech signals from the brain,"Jorgensen said. In their first experiment, scientists "trained" special software to recognize six words and 10 digits that the researchers repeatedsubvocally . Initial word recognition results were an average of 92 percent accurate. The first sub-vocal words the system "learned" were "stop," "go," "left," "right," "alpha" and "omega," and the digits "zero" through "nine." Silently speaking these words, scientists conducted simple searches on the Internet by using a number chart representing the alphabet to control a Web browser program. "We took the alphabet and put it into a matrix -- like a calendar. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers,"Jorgensen said. "So we silently spelled out 'NASA' and then submitted it to a well-known Web search engine. We electronically numbered the Web pages that came up as search results. We used the numbers again to choose Web pages to examine. This proved we could browse the Web without touching a keyboard,"Jorgensen explained. Scientists are testing new, "noncontact " sensors that can read muscle signals even through a layer of clothing. A second demonstration will be to control a mechanical device using a simple set of commands, according toJorgensen . His team is planning tests with a simulated Mars rover. "We can have the model rover go left or right using silently 'spoken' words,"Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists. "An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example,"Jorgensen explained. "A logical spin-off would be that handicapped persons could use this system for a lot of things." To learn more about what is in the patterns of the nerve signals that control vocal chords, muscles and tongue position,Ames scientists are studying the complex nerve-signal patterns. "We use an amplifier to strengthen the electrical nerve signals. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another,"Jorgensen said. After the signals are amplified, computer software "reads" the signals to recognize each word and sound. "The keys to this system are the sensors, the signal processing and the pattern recognition, and that's where the scientific meat of what we're doing resides,"Jorgensen explained. "We will continue to expand the vocabulary with sets of English sounds, usable by a full speech-recognition computer program." The Computing, Information and Communications Technology Program, part ofNASA's Office of Exploration Systems, funds the subvocal word-recognition research. There is a patent pending for the new technology.

Device for Disabled Converts Brain Signals into Spoken Words

by Louise Fenner; 24 Dec. 2007, Press Release: US Information Service; SCOOP WORLD

Device Converts Brain Signals Into Spoken Words. Two young inventors are perfecting a device that gives back the power of speech to people who suffer from diseases or disabilities that have taken away their ability to talk. The device, called theAudeo , translates thoughts -- or, more precisely, brain signals sent to the vocal cords -- into synthesized speech. Using the same technology, inventors Michael Callahan and Thomas Coleman also have created a mechanized wheelchair that moves, turns and stops in response to intercepted brain signals. The first commercially available speech device "is slated for the middle of 2008, designed specifically for people withALS or diseases that have similar types of effects," Callahan said in an interview from his office in Champaign, Illinois, where he and Coleman co-founded the Ambient Corporation three years ago to research and market the Audeo. Both men are now 25. ALS -- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's disease -- can rob people of their physical motor control and ability to produce speech. So can some other diseases, as well as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, stroke and certain spinal cord injuries. Callahan and Coleman are anxious to help people with such conditions. TheAudeo uses sensors located in a neckband worn by the user to detect electrical impulses in the vocal cords and relay them to a nearby computer that converts the signals to speech. But users need not fear that the device can read their minds, Callahan said. "It's a step above thinking and a step below actually speaking, so you have to want to say it," he explained. "If you don't want to say it, we have no signal to detect and nothing is able to be communicated. But if person does actually want to say it, we're able to capture the instruction signal that your brain sends." "we're trying to provide a more efficient way to input thoughts into a computer." He estimates that some 3 million people in the United States and 60 million people worldwide could benefit from this technology. "We've gotten a large amount of interest from countries all over the world, from people who have different diseases and disabilities," Callahan said. "Our first roll-out will be targeted toward English speakers, but we have the technology to cross the language barrier and to enable people to speak in other languages." He and Coleman started investigating the technology as engineering students at the University of IllinoisChampaign-Urbana , and they have won numerous awards for their work. Testing is being done at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and other institutions. They also hope to find mainstream commercial uses for the technology such as silent cell-phone communication.

Ambient Corporation: The Audeo is being developed to create a human-computer interface for communication without the need of physical motor control or speech production. Using signal processing, unpronounced speech representing the thought of the mind can be translated from intercepted neurological signals. By interfacing near the source of vocal production, theAudeo has the potential to restore communication to people who are unable to speak. The proposed solution is a featherweight wireless device resting over the vocal cords capable of transmitting neurological information from the brain. Using data analysis, this information can be processed into synthesized speech or a menu selection capable of conveying the basic necessities of human life. February 26, 2008 Ambient demonstrates world's first voiceless phone call conversation.

Whatever Happened to . . . Subliminal Advertising?- New, credible research suggests it could very well work.

by Stephen Ornes ; Discover Magazine, 02.07.2008

In 1957, marketing executive James Vicary claimed that during screenings of the film Picnic, the words “eat popcorn” and “drink Coca-Cola” were flashed on the screen every five seconds for 1/3,000 second—well below the threshold of conscious awareness.Vicary said soda and popcorn sales spiked as a result of what he called “subliminal advertising.” Psychologists had been studying subliminal messages since the late 19th century. It was Vicary’s ideas, presented in Vance Packard’s 1957 best seller, The Hidden Persuaders, that catapulted the concept of subliminal advertising into the public consciousness. Even though in a 1962 interview with Advertising AgeVicary admitted that the amount of data he’d collected was “too small to be meaningful,” subliminal messages continued to attract public—and commercial—interest. In 1974, the FCC held hearings about the perceived threat of subliminal advertising and issued a policy statement saying that “subliminal perception” was deceptive and “contrary to the public interest.” Concerns about subliminal advertising continued for decades. As recently as 2000 during the presidential race, the Republican National Committee ran an ad attacking the policies of Al Gore in which the word rats briefly flashed on the screen. Many suspected subliminal intent, which the ad’s creator denied. MatthewErdelyi, a psychology professor at Brooklyn College, says that while Vicary’s methods were controversial, new studies continue to suggest the use of subliminal perception in advertising could be effective. “There’s a lot of interest, but the subject matter is a little bit taboo,” he says. Still, if subliminal messages in advertising have a resurgence in the future, “nobody should be terribly surprised.”

Subliminal exposure to national flags affects political thought and behavior.

by Hassin RR, Ferguson MJ, Shidlovski D, Gross T.

Department of Psychology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 11;104(50):19757-61.

Political thought and behavior play an important role in our lives, from ethnic tensions in Europe, to the war in Iraq and the Middle Eastern conflict, to parliamentary and presidential elections. However, little is known about how theindividual's political attitudes and decisions are shaped by subtle national cues that are so prevalent in our environment. We report a series of experiments that show that subliminal exposure to one's national flag influences political attitudes, intentions, and decisions, both in laboratory settings and in "real-life" behavior. Furthermore, this manipulation consistently narrowed the gap between those who score high vs. low on a scale of identification with Israeli nationalism. The first two experiments examined participants' stance toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Jewish settlers in the West Bank. Experiment 3 examined voting intentions and actual voting in Israel's recently held general elections. The results portray a consistent picture: subtle reminders of one's nationality significantly influence political thought and overt political behavior.

PMID: 18056813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Secret Surveillance

United States Patent 3,478,344
A behavioural Supervision system with wrist carried transceiver.
Abstract: A system for analyzing and or supervizing the behaviour of selected individuals...
Inventors: Ralph K. Schwitzgebel et. al.
Filed: June 21, 1965 / Nov 11, 1969

United States Patent 4,178,916
Diabetic insulin alarm system
Abstract: The disclosed Diabetic Insulin Alarm System is designed to monitor certain physiological conditions of the wearer associated with insulin shock. The system includes means to sense such physiological conditions of the wearer and to produce an electrical output. This output actuates a pulse generator which in turn energizes an oscillator producing oscillations that are applied both to an enclosed speaker and to a tuned circuit. The tuned circuit, in turn, energizes an antenna which radiates electromagnetic energy at a frequency to which an electromagnetic receiver may be tuned. Thus, by tuning an electromagnetic receiver, such as a radio, to the frequency radiated by the antenna, a wearer can employ the receiver to alert him to the onset of insulin shock, the audible tone produced by the speaker even waking him when asleep.
Inventors: McNamara; Elger W.
Filed: September 26, 1977 / December 18, 1979

United States Patent 4,399,821
Free moving animal physiological monitoring and identification system and method
Abstract: An animal physiological monitoring and identification system and method for carrying out same, wherein each animal within the system is provided with an implanted device equipped with means for deriving the data representative of one or more animal physiological parameters, such a device also holding stored animal identification data and being equipped to communicate data to and from external data handling and interrogation devices. Each implanted device provides for delivery of stimulation pulses or signals to a portion of the animal, such as a selected muscle area, for evoking an animal response such as twitching which is readily observable externally.
Inventors: Bowers; David L.
Filed: February 19, 1981 / August 23, 1983

United States Patent 4,601,064
Communication system
Abstract: A communications system provides for the location or tracking of persons or objects to automatically establish two-way conversation with the person located via an associated intercom or telephone system. The locating system provides each person or object to be located with an infrared pulse transmitter which operates continuously automatically and repetitively. It requires no action on the part of the person being monitored. The system is cost effective and accurate by reason of the infrared pulse code utilized. It includes a relatively short pulse width for low power consumption, a pulse code which has error detecting bits, and use of a high pulse output power to distinguish over ambient noise.
Inventors: Shipley; Robert T.
Assignee: Fisher Berkeley Corporation (Emeryville, CA)
Filed: October 3, 1984 / July 15, 1986
gizmos: The latest gadgets and tech toys. It's Easy Seein' GreenNight-vision scopes make your closet the color of Baghdad.,

by Paul Boutin, Posted Thursday, March 27, 2003, at 6:58 PM ET
Of all the military gadgets on parade on television, there's one you can bring home without spooking the neighbors into thinking you've gone postal. Night-vision scopes, once available only at defense contractor prices, can be found nowadays atWal -Mart for less than $100. The new consumer models are less powerful than the military versions, but they're more portable, too. They're also more stylish, so you won't look like that creep from Silence of the Lambs.

United States Patent 3,951,134

Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves

Inventors: Malech; Robert G. (Plainview, NY); Assignee: Dorne & Margolin Inc. (Bohemia, NY); Appl. No.: 05/494,518; Filed: August 5, 1974

Abstract: Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject's brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein. Medical science has found brain waves to be a useful barometer of organic functions. Measurements of electrical activity in the brain have been instrumental in detecting physical and psychic disorder, measuring stress, determining sleep patterns, and monitoring body metabolism. References U.S. Patent Documents Cited:


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Reading hidden intentions in the human brain.,

by John-Dylan Haynes, Katsuyuki Sakai, Geraint Rees, Sam Gilbert, Chris Frith, Dick Passingham; Current Biology online, 8. Februar 2007

Summary: When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention . Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of previous responses, or general processes related to establishing a new task set. Here we study subjects who freely decided which of two tasks to perform and covertly held onto an intention during a variable delay. Only after this delay did they perform the chosen task and indicate which task they had prepared. We demonstrate that during the delay, it is possible to decode from activity in medial and lateral regions ofprefrontal cortex which of two tasks the subjects were covertly intending to perform. This suggests that covert goals can be represented by distributed patterns of activity in theprefrontal cortex, thereby providing a potential neural substrate for prospective memory. During task execution, most information could be decoded from a more posterior region ofprefrontal cortex, suggesting that different brain regions encode goals during task preparation and task execution. Decoding of intentions was most robust from the medialprefrontal cortex, which is consistent with a specific role of this region when subjects reflect on their own mental states.

Identifying natural images from human brain activity.,

by Kendrick N. Kay, Thomas Naselaris, Ryan J. Prenger & Jack L. Gallant; Nature 5 March 2008; doi:10.1038/nature06713

Abstract: A challenging goal in neuroscience is to be able to read out, or decode, mental content from brain activity. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have decoded orientation, position and object category from activity in visual cortex. However, these studies typically used relatively simple stimuli (for example, gratings) or images drawn from fixed categories (for example, faces, houses), and decoding was based on previous measurements of brain activity evoked by those same stimuli or categories. To overcome these limitations, here we develop a decoding method based on quantitative receptive-field models that characterize the relationship between visual stimuli andfMRI activity in early visual areas. These models describe the tuning of individual voxels for space, orientation and spatial frequency, and are estimated directly from responses evoked by natural images. We show that these receptive-field models make it possible to identify, from a large set of completely novel natural images, which specific image was seen by an observer. Identification is not a mere consequence of theretinotopic organization of visual areas; simpler receptive-field models that describe only spatial tuning yield much poorer identification performance. Our results suggest that it may soon be possible to reconstruct a picture of a person's visual experience from measurements of brain activity alone.

ie Wiener Firma "Digital Mankind" und der Verhaltensforscher Karl Grammer präsentierten ihr neues Computerprogramm "e-motion". Es ist ein Programm, dass die Persönlichkeit eines Menschen aufgrund seiner Körperbewegungen analysieren kann. Ort der Präsentation war London. Dort geht fünf Tage lang die größte Wissenschaftsmesse Englands über die Bühne. Wer hier ausstellen darf, kann beim jungen Publikum die Weichen für die Zukunft stellen.

Die in hohem Maße ausgeschütteten Stresshormone führen zu den Veränderungen der Gehirnstruktur.

Der Nachweis dieser Theorie gelang erst mit verfeinerten Methoden wie der Magnetenzephalographie. Dabei werden die extrem schwachen Magnetfelder gemessen, die durch das ständige Wechselspiel von elektrischer Ladung und Entladung im Gehirn entstehen. So kann man aktive Gehirnregionen sehr genau eingrenzen. Konfrontiert man die Testpersonen mit harmlosen Bildern aus dem Alltag und mischt darunter Bilder, die Angst und Schrecken auslösen, kommt es in bestimmten Gehirnregionen zu schweren Erschütterungen.

Utilization of Body Language

Body language; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Body language is a term for communication using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language or other communication. It forms part of the category of paralanguage, which describes all forms of human communication that are not verbal language. This includes the most subtle of movements that many people are not aware of, including winking and slight movement of the eyebrows. In addition body language can also incorporate the use of facial expressions. Although they are generally not aware of it, many people send and receive non-verbal signals all the time. These signals may indicate what they are truly feeling. The technique of 'reading' people is used frequently. For example, the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews. It sets the person being interviewed at ease. Mirroring the body language of someone else indicates that they are understood. Body language signals may have a goal other than communication. Both people would keep this in mind. Observers limit the weight they place on non-verbal cues. Signallers clarify their signals to indicate the biological origin of their actions.

  • One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when a person crosses his or her arms across the chest. This can indicate that a person is putting up an unconscious barrier between themselves and others. It can also indicate that the person's arms are cold which would be clarified by rubbing the arms or huddling. When the overall situation is amicable, it can mean that a person is thinking deeply about what is being discussed. But in a serious or confrontational situation, it can mean that a person is expressing opposition. This is especially so if the person is leaning away from the speaker. A harsh or blank facial expression often indicates outright hostility. Such a person is not an ally, and may be considering contentious tactics.

  • Consistent eye contact can indicate that a person is thinking positively of what the speaker is saying. It can also mean that the other person doesn't trust the speaker enough to "take his eyes off" the speaker. Lack of eye contact can indicate negativity. On the other hand, individualswithanxiety disorders are often unable to make eye contact without discomfort. Eye contact is often a secondary and misleading gesture because we are taught from an early age to make eye contact when speaking. If a person is looking at you but is making the arms-across-chest signal, the eye contact could be indicative that something is bothering the person, and that he wants to talk about it. Or if while making direct eye contact a personisfiddling with something, even while directly looking at you, it could indicate the attention is elsewhere.

  • Disbelief is often indicated by averted gaze, or by touching the ear or scratching the chin. So is eyestrain, or itchiness. When a person is not being convinced by what someone is saying, the attention invariably wanders, and the eyes will stare away for an extended period.

  • Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. A head tilt may also indicate a sore neck, and unfocused eyes may indicate ocular problems in the listener.

  • Interest can be indicated through posture or extended eye contact.

It should be noted that some people (e.g., people with certain disabilities, or those on the autistic spectrum) use and understand body language differently, or not at all. Interpreting their gestures and facial expressions (or lack thereof) in the contextofnormal body language usually leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations (especially if body language is given priority over spoken language). It should also be stated that people fromdifferentcultures can interpret body language in different ways.

Personal Space as it Relates to Body Language: Generally, if you are closer than arm’s reach, than you are in some one's personal space. To create more space in crowded areas such as elevators and bars, people often tense up and use their arms as protection. They will hold them close to their body – often crossed – and will also avoid eye contact. People guard their intimate space passionately, wherever it is, and do not appreciate other's invading it. Respecting people’s intimate space involves not invading it with objects like bags or jackets, or with body parts unless they are welcomed. Intimate space is closer then 18 inches, social is at around 18 inches - 5 feet and casual (for strangers) is at 5-10 feet.

Female Interest and Body Language: Women commonly display to men via sexual cues. These serve to entice men to approach them. Some of the cues to signal female interest include: the parade, echoing and mirroring, room encompassing glance, pointing, leg crossing, the pointing knee, pigeon toes, neck touching, head tilt, shoulder shrugs, rotation of the pelvis, showing wrist, skirt hike, laughing and smiling, the tap, forehead bow, eye contact, touching, childlike playfulness and proximity.

The Rule of Four: The rule of four states that in order to be sure that another person is unequivocally displaying non-verbal sexual interest, four separate positive signals must be present simultaneously and they must be directed at you. A person who is simply sexually aroused might display one or a great variety of cues, but they might be generally directed toward a room and not at anyone specifically.


  • Albert Mehrabian and his 7%-38%-55% Rule.

  • Allan Pease Body Language (over 30 years of research)

  • Argyle, M. (1990). Bodily communication (2nd edition). New York: International Universities Press. ISBN 0823605515

  • Livingston, Drs. Sharon and Glen (2004). How to Use Body language. Psy Tech Inc.
Scary but hypnotic, psychological illusionist Derren Brown is back for a new six-part series. From the Oxford Union to St Pancras Station, and from Margate to the Tate, he picks pockets, reads minds – and always knows who's lying. 'If you take the time to follow me through these pages, you will discover a little about some of the basic techniques I use to achieve my effects. There will be a few tests and some video to watch, so sit back, open your mind ... and we'll begin.'

Some Recommended books:

  • Peoplewatching: The Desmond Morris guide to body language by Desmond Morris (Vintage, 2002)
    From the author of The Naked Ape, Morris takes a unique look at human body language through his keen observations.
  • I Know What You're Thinking by Lillian Glass (John Wiley & Sons, 2002)
    An easy-to-follow, practical guide to reading people, understanding what they are really thinking and gaining insight into their personalities.
  • Reading People: Secret tips that will change your life by Jo-Ellan Dimitrius (Vermilion, 1999)
    Teaches the reader how to tell a person's sincerity by the tone of their voice; which three character traits are most likely to predict a person's behaviour;
    how to know if your date is interested in a serious relationship and the message you are sending with your hairstyle.
  • Body Language: How to read others' thoughts by their gestures by Allan Pease (Sheldon Press, 1997)
    What people say is often very different from what they think or feel. Body language is easy to pick up, and
    can tell you if someone is lying, or how to choose a partner and make yourself likeable.
  • Amazing Face Reading: An illustrated encyclopaedia for reading faces by Mac Fulfer (Good Press, 1997)
    The author takes this art/science out of the realm of the mysterious and into a hands-on method of learning.
  • Everybody's Guide to People Watching by Aaron Wolfgang (Intercultural Press, 1995)
    Advice on how to sharpen basic people-watching skills, with tests and assessment tools to measure or enhance them.
    Also explores non-verbal behaviour in cross-cultural interaction and the degree to which culture affects people watching.
  • Easily Led: A history of propaganda by Oliver Thomson (Sutton, 1999)
    Examines the variety of propaganda techniques employed in different periods and cultures and demonstrates the extent to which
    these have influenced the course of events over the past 5,000 years.
  • The First Honest Book about Lies by Jonni Kincher (Free Spirit Publishing, 1992)
    Learn how to discern the truth from lies through a series of activities, games and experiments.
  • Lies! Lies! Lies! The psychology of deceit by Charles V Ford (American Psychiatric Press, 1999)
    Looks beyond compulsive liars in society to consider the flood of mistruths that we experience every day. Explains how we learn to lie and detect deceit as a developmental task.
  • Telling Lies by Paul Ekman (W W Norton, 2001) Describes gestures and other clues that indicate a person may be lying,
    explains why people lie, and discusses the controversy surrounding lie detector tests.
  • Maximise Your Memory by Jonathan Hancock (David & Charles, 2000)
    Detailed instructions, illustrations and sample exercises that show the reader how to build a system of personalised frameworks for storing and recalling information on demand.
  • Secrets of Mind Power by Harry Lorayne (Frederick Fell, 1999)
    Guide to proven memory techniques and methods to develop the hidden powers of the mind.

Clever Hans; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Clever Hans (in German, der Kluge Hans) was a horse that was claimed to have been able to perform arithmetic and other intellectual tasks. After formal investigation in 1907, psychologistOskar Pfungst demonstrated that the horse was not actually performing these mental tasks, but was watching the reaction of his human observers.Pfungst discovered this artifact in the research methodology, wherein the horse was responding directly to involuntary cues in the body language of the human trainer, who had the faculties to solve each problem. The trainer was entirely unaware that he was providing such cues. In honour ofPfungst's study, the anomalous artifact has since been referred to as the Clever Hans effect and has continued to be important knowledge in the observer-expectancy effect and later studies in animal cognition. The social communication systems of horses probably depend on the detection of small postural changes, and this may be why Hans so easily picked up on the cues given byvon Osten (who seems to have been entirely unaware that he was providing such cues). However, the capacity to detect such cues is not confined to horses.Pfungst proceeded to test the hypothesis that such cues would be discernible, by carrying out laboratory tests in which he played the part of the horse, and human participants sent him questions to which he gave numerical answers by tapping. He found that 90% of participants gave sufficient cues for him to get a correct answer.

The 'Clever Hans' effect

Pfungst made an extremely significant observation. After he had become adept at giving Hans performances himself, and fully aware of the subtle cues which made them possible, he discovered that he would produce these cues involuntarily regardless of whether he wished to exhibit or suppress them. This gives the phenomenon an importance which could hardly be exaggerated. Its recognition has had a large effect on experimental design and methodology for all experiments whatsoever involving sentient subjects (including humans). The risk of Clever Hans effects is one strong reason why comparative psychologists normally test animals in isolated apparatus, without interaction with them. However this creates problems of its own, because many of the most interesting phenomena in animal cognition are only likely to be demonstrated in a social context, and in order to train and demonstrate them, it is necessary to build up a social relationship between trainer and animal.

Sign language; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses manual communication, body language and lip patterns instead of sound to convey meaning—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express fluidly a speaker's thoughts. Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters and friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. As is the case in spoken language, sign language differs from one region to another. However, when people using different signed languages meet, communication is significantly easier than when people of different spoken languages meet. Sign language, in this respect, gives access to an international deaf community. Sign language is however not universal, and many different sign languages exist that are mostly mutually unintelligible.

Sign language in infants and toddlers; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the United States, teaching sign language to non-signing families to communicate with their hearing infants and toddlers was developed by LindaAcredolo, professor emeritus of psychology at the University of California, Davis, and Susan Goodwyn , professor of psychology at California State University, Stanislaus. Their research began in 1982, and produced a 1985 article in Human Development titled “Symbolic gesturing in language development: A case study.”
Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play.;
by Marina Davila Ross, Susanne Menzler, Elke Zimmermann, Biology Letters, Vol 4, No 1 / Feb. 23, 2008, pp. 27-30, DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0535,
Abstract: Emotional contagion enables individuals to experience emotions of others. This important empathic phenomenon is closely linked to facial mimicry, where facial displays evoke the same facial expressions in social partners. In humans, facial mimicry can be voluntary or involuntary, whereby its latter mode can be processed as rapid as within or at 1s. Thus far, studies have not provided evidence of rapid involuntary facial mimicry in animals. This study assessed whether rapid involuntary facial mimicry is present in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; N=25) for their open-mouth faces (OMFs) during everyday dyadic play. Results clearly indicated that orangutans rapidly mimicked OMFs of their playmates within or at 1s. Our study revealed the first evidence on rapid involuntary facial mimicry in non-human mammals. This finding suggests that fundamental building blocks of positive emotional contagion and empathy that link to rapid involuntary facial mimicry in humans havehomologues in non-human primates. Keywords: orangutan, rapid facial mimicry, involuntary responses, emotional contagion, empathy

First Impressions: Making Up Your Mind After a 100-Ms Exposure to a Face

Nature 448, 600-603 (2 August 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06041;

by Janine Willis and Alexander Todorov, Princeton University · Posted August 22, 2006; 02:03 p.m. News at Princeton, Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Abstract: People often draw trait inferences from the facial appearance of other people. We investigated the minimal conditions under which people make such inferences. In five experiments, each focusing on a specific trait judgment, we manipulated the exposure time of unfamiliar faces. Judgments made after a 100-ms exposure correlated highly with judgments made in the absence of time constraints, suggesting that this exposure time was sufficient for participants to form an impression. In fact, for all judgments — attractiveness,likeability , trustworthiness, competence, and aggressiveness—increased exposure time did not significantly increase the correlations. When exposure time increased from 100 to 500 ms, participants’ judgments became more negative, response times for judgments decreased, and confidence in judgments increased. When exposure time increased from 500 to 1,000 ms, trait judgments and response times did not change significantly (with one exception), but confidence increased for some of the judgments; this result suggests that additional time may simply boost confidence in judgments. However, increased exposure time led to more differentiated person impressions.
Interaction thrue bodylanguage : The woman who was attacked later turned out to have been a regular visitor to the great apes' enclosure. She had a habit of touching the glass that separated her from the gorillas while making eye contact withBokito and smiling to him, a practice that is discouraged by primatologists, as apes are likely to interpret human smiling as a form of aggressive display.

Traitor tracing; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Traitor tracing is a copy prevention and leak detection system. The method is that the distributor adds a unique value to each copy given out. When a copy of it is leaked to the public, the distributor can check the value on it and trace it back to the "leaker".

Quantum Byzantine Agreement; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Byzantine fault tolerant protocols are algorithms that are robust to arbitrary types of failures in distributed algorithms. With the advent and popularity of theinternet , there is a need to develop algorithms that do not require any centralised control that have some guarantee of always working correctly. The Byzantine Agreement protocol is an essential part of this task. In this article we describe the quantum version of the Byzantine protocol in which works in constant time. Compiler Note: Which is important in the Verifiable Secret Sharing and the detection of traitors.

Experimental Demonstration of a Quantum Protocol for Byzantine Agreement and Liar Detection.;

by Sascha Gaertner, Mohamed Bourennane, Christian Kurtsiefer, Ada´n Cabello, and Harald Weinfurter; PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 22 FEB. 2008;

Abstract: We introduce a new quantum protocol for solving detectable Byzantine agreement (also called detectable broadcast) between three parties, and also for solving the detectable liar detection protocol is suggested by the properties of a four-qubit entangled state, and the classical part of the protocol is simpler than that of previous proposals. In addition, we present an experimental protocol using four-photon entanglement. problem. The implementation of the

akathisia oid ???

Results of Search in US Patent Collection db for:
schwitzgebel: 184 patents.
151 4,658,357 Full-Text Time and accounting system
152 4,648,131 Full-Text Work helmet having transmitter-receiver for light signal
153 4,645,320 Full-Text Camera mount for motor vehicle
154 4,644,351 Full-Text Two way personal message system with extended coverage
155 4,615,597 Full-Text Camera mount for vehicles
156 4,601,064 Full-Text Communication system
157 4,593,273 Full-Text Out-of-range personnel monitor and alarm
158 4,591,836 Full-Text Battery operated panic alarm wrist watch
159 4,587,516 Full-Text Personal security alarm
160 4,549,264 Full-Text Time and accounting system
161 D278,129 Full-Text Novelty clock
162 4,480,253 Full-Text Wrist watch weather radio
163 4,476,469 Full-Text Means for assisting in locating an object
164 4,420,238 Full-Text Apparatus for enabling concealing surveillance by use of a camera in a vehicle
165 4,399,821 Full-Text Free moving animal physiological monitoring and identification system and method
166 4,275,385 Full-Text Infrared personnel locator system
167 4,272,969 Full-Text Method for refrigerating fresh products and keeping them fresh, as well as refrigerator for carrying out this method
168 4,225,953 Full-Text Personnel locator
169 4,203,595 Full-Text Baseball fielders signaling apparatus
170 4,178,916 Full-Text Diabetic insulin alarm system
171 4,095,214 Full-Text Electronic monitoring system and responder device
172 D244,472 Full-Text Hand held radio transceiver
173 3,983,483 Full-Text Communications device arranged to be worn in intimate contact with the body of a user
174 3,973,200 Full-Text Process for acknowledging calls in a system for wireless staff locators
175 3,961,323 Full-Text Cargo monitor apparatus and method
176 3,952,352 Full-Text Electronic stroke effectiveness sensor for competitive swimmers
177 3,942,176 Full-Text Ultrasonic alarm system
183 3,515,472 Full-Page Image 352/132 346/107.2 352/242 396/419
184 3,478,344 Full-Page Image 340/7.63 128/903 340/313 340/539.1 340/539.11 455/575.6


Results of Search in US Patent Collection db for:
"Hearing device": 421 patents.
401 4,133,984 Full-Text Plug-type hearing device
402 4,110,583 Full-Text Earphone construction
403 4,063,048 Full-Text Implantable electronic hearing aid
404 3,989,904 Full-Text Method and apparatus for setting an aural prosthesis to provide specific auditory deficiency corrections
405 3,952,158 Full-Text Ear protection and hearing device
406 3,882,285 Full-Text Implantable hearing aid and method of improving hearing
407 3,875,349 Full-Text Hearing aid
409 3,828,142 Full-Text ELECTRICAL HEARING AID
410 3,732,382 Full-Text HEARING AID EAR PIECE
412 2,288,668 Full-Page Image 181/130
413 2,239,550 Full-Page Image 381/326 310/333 381/162 381/190 381/378 381/380
414 2,206,807 Full-Page Image 181/129

415 2,168,781 Full-Page Image 381/381 224/181 24/3.3 248/688 351/119 351/158
416 2,127,468 Full-Page Image 381/151 181/400 340/407.1 381/326 381/380 381/400 381/417
417 1,910,875 Full-Page Image 381/385
418 1,884,638 Full-Page Image 181/129
419 1,824,427 Full-Page Image 181/130
420 1,737,430 Full-Page Image 381/328 381/312
421 1,536,109 Full-Page Image 181/129


brain imaging

Results of Search in US Patent Collection db for:
"brain imaging": 510 patents.
501 4,387,087 Full-Text Cationic lipophilic complexes of .sup.99m Tc and their use for myocardial and hepatobiliary imaging
502 4,364,920 Full-Text Stable diagnostic reagents
503 4,363,793 Full-Text Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for localization in target tissues exhibiting a regional pH shift relative to surrounding tissues
504 4,360,511 Full-Text Amines useful as brain imaging agents
505 4,352,018 Full-Text Apparatus for performing positron emission computed tomography
506 4,284,619 Full-Text Esters useful as brain imaging agents
507 4,279,887 Full-Text Amides useful as brain imaging agents
508 4,233,285 Full-Text Mercaptocarboxylic acid radiopharmaceuticals
509 3,889,226 Full-Text Scanned holography by sector scanning

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United States Patent 3,048,698
Roland W. Carlson
Filed: March 11. 1959 / August 7, 1962

United States Patent 3462601
Gamma Ray, X Ray Converter Utillizing a SCINTILLATION CAMERA system
EJ Sternglass
Filed: Oct 14, 1965 / Aug 19, 1969

Results of Search in US Patent Collection db for:
"scintillation camera": 784 patents.
751 3,777,148 Full-Text COLLIMATOR
753 3,769,509 Full-Text SCINTILLATION CAMERA
759 3,745,345 Full-Text RADIATION IMAGING DEVICE
768 3,693,178 Full-Text COLORSCANNER
783 3,462,601 Full-Page Image 250/336.1 250/214VT 250/369
784 3,048,698 Full-Page Image 250/369 250/367 250/486.1 264/1.28